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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 187; doi:10.3390/ijerph13020187

Mapping to Support Fine Scale Epidemiological Cholera Investigations: A Case Study of Spatial Video in Haiti

1
GIS, Health & Hazards Lab, Department of Geography, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242, USA
2
Spatial Epidemiology and Ecology Research Laboratory, Department of Geography, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
3
Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
4
GIS, Health & Hazards Lab, Department of Geography, Kent State University at Salem, Salem, OH 44460, USA
5
Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: P. Grady Dixon and Scott C. Sheridan
Received: 3 November 2015 / Revised: 22 December 2015 / Accepted: 26 January 2016 / Published: 3 February 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2826 KB, uploaded 3 February 2016]   |  

Abstract

The cartographic challenge in many developing world environments suffering a high disease burden is a lack of granular environmental covariates suitable for modeling disease outcomes. As a result, epidemiological questions, such as how disease diffuses at intra urban scales are extremely difficult to answer. This paper presents a novel geospatial methodology, spatial video, which can be used to collect and map environmental covariates, while also supporting field epidemiology. An example of epidemic cholera in a coastal town of Haiti is used to illustrate the potential of this new method. Water risks from a 2012 spatial video collection are used to guide a 2014 survey, which concurrently included the collection of water samples, two of which resulted in positive lab results “of interest” (bacteriophage specific for clinical cholera strains) to the current cholera situation. By overlaying sample sites on 2012 water risk maps, a further fifteen proposed water sample locations are suggested. These resulted in a third spatial video survey and an additional “of interest” positive water sample. A potential spatial connection between the “of interest” water samples is suggested. The paper concludes with how spatial video can be an integral part of future fine-scale epidemiological investigations for different pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: spatial video; geographic information systems; cholera; Haiti; bacteriophage spatial video; geographic information systems; cholera; Haiti; bacteriophage
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MDPI and ACS Style

Curtis, A.; Blackburn, J.K.; Smiley, S.L.; Yen, M.; Camilli, A.; Alam, M.T.; Ali, A.; Morris, J.G. Mapping to Support Fine Scale Epidemiological Cholera Investigations: A Case Study of Spatial Video in Haiti. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 187.

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