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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 184; doi:10.3390/ijerph13020184

Impact of Geographic Location on Vitamin D Status and Bone Mineral Density

1
Division of Food Bioscience, College of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Konkuk University, Chungju-si 27478, Korea
2
Department of Family Practice and Community Health, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon-si 16499, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marlena Kruger and Hope Weiler
Received: 27 October 2015 / Revised: 21 January 2016 / Accepted: 22 January 2016 / Published: 2 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone Health: Nutritional Perspectives)
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Abstract

A significant decline of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration [25(OH)D] with increasing latitude has been reported only for Caucasians. To determine the association between serum 25(OH)D and geographic location and its impact on bone mineral density (BMD) in an Asian population, a total of 17,508 subjects (8910 men and 8598 women) from the 2008–2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were stratified into four age groups and analyzed for 25(OH)D and BMD according to geographic location (South, 33° N–35° N; Middle, 36° N; North, 37° N–38° N). Mean 25(OH)D were 47.7 and 41.2 nmol/L; calcium intake, 564.9 & 442.3 mg/d; femoral neck BMD, 0.829 & 0.721 g/cm2; and lumbar spine BMD, 0.960 & 0.918 g/cm2 for men and women, respectively. Both men and women living in the South had significantly higher 25(OH)D and femoral neck BMD for those ≥50 years old. Lumbar spine BMD was significantly higher in men ≥50 years old, and for women 10–29 & 50–69 years old living in the South. A 1 or 2 degree difference in latitude has a significant effect on serum 25(OH)D and BMD in this low vitamin D status population. Thus, consideration of geographic location for a recommendation of vitamin D intake may be necessary. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone mineral density; vitamin D status; geographic location; serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D bone mineral density; vitamin D status; geographic location; serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yeum, K.-J.; Song, B.C.; Joo, N.-S. Impact of Geographic Location on Vitamin D Status and Bone Mineral Density. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 184.

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