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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 157; doi:10.3390/ijerph13020157

Associations of Age, BMI, and Years of Menstruation with Proximal Femur Strength in Chinese Postmenopausal Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marlena Kruger and Hope Weiler
Received: 27 November 2015 / Revised: 17 January 2016 / Accepted: 19 January 2016 / Published: 23 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone Health: Nutritional Perspectives)
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Abstract

This study aimed to elucidate the associations of age, BMI, and years of menstruation with proximal femur strength in Chinese postmenopausal women, which may improve the prediction of hip fracture risk. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1322 Chinese postmenopausal women recruited from communities. DXA images were used to generate bone mineral density (BMD) and geometric parameters, including cross-sectional area (CSA), outer diameter (OD), cortical thickness (CT), section modulus (SM), buckling ratio (BR) at the narrow neck (NN), intertrochanter (IT), and femoral shaft (FS). Relationships of age, BMI, and years of menstruation with bone phenotypes were analyzed with the adjustment of height, age at menarche, total daily physical activity, education, smoking status, calcium tablet intake, etc. Age was associated with lower BMD, CSA, CT, SM, and higher BR (p < 0.05), which indicated a weaker bone strength at the proximal femur. BMI and years of menstruation had the positive relationships with proximal femur strength (p < 0.05). Further analyses showed that the ranges of absolute value of change slope per year, per BMI or per year of menstruation were 0.14%–1.34%, 0.20%–2.70%, and 0.16%–0.98%, respectively. These results supported that bone strength deteriorated with aging and enhanced with higher BMI and longer time of years of menstruation in Chinese postmenopausal women. View Full-Text
Keywords: proximal femur strength; age; BMI; years of menstruation; postmenopausal women proximal femur strength; age; BMI; years of menstruation; postmenopausal women
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kang, H.; Chen, Y.-M.; Han, G.; Huang, H.; Chen, W.-Q.; Wang, X.; Zhu, Y.-Y.; Xiao, S.-M. Associations of Age, BMI, and Years of Menstruation with Proximal Femur Strength in Chinese Postmenopausal Women: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 157.

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