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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 177; doi:10.3390/ijerph13020177

Factors Associated with Relapse among Heroin Addicts: Evidence from a Two-Year Community-Based Follow-Up Study in China

1
School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China
2
School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou 310053, China
3
Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai 200030, China
4
Technological and Industrial Promotion Center of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China
5
Drug Control Office, Shanghai 200129, China
6
The Council of Shanghai Ziqiang Social Services, Shanghai 200030, China
7
Key Laboratory of Public Health Security, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 200032, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Amie Hayley and Joris Cornelis Verster
Received: 30 November 2015 / Revised: 23 January 2016 / Accepted: 25 January 2016 / Published: 28 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Substance and Drug Abuse Prevention)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [285 KB, uploaded 28 January 2016]

Abstract

Background: Many countries including China are facing a serious opiate dependence problem. Anti-drug work effectiveness was affected by the high relapse rate all over the world. This study aims to analyze the factors influencing heroin addict relapse, and to provide evidence for generating relapse prevention strategies. Methods: A community-based follow-up study was conducted in China between October 2010 and September 2012. A total of 554 heroin addicts in accordance with the inclusion criteria from 81 streets in 12 districts of Shanghai, China were divided into 4 groups: group 1—daily dosage taken orally of 60 mL of methadone or under combined with psychological counseling and social supports (n = 130); group 2—daily dosage taken orally of over 60 mL of methadone combined with psychological counseling and social supports (n = 50); group 3—JTT (Jitai tablets) combined with psychological counseling and social supports (n = 206); group 4—JTT combined with social supports (n = 168). Results: Log-rank test results showed that the cumulative relapse rate differences among four groups during the two-year follow-up period were not statistically significant (χ2 = 5.889, p = 0.117). Multivariate Cox regression analysis results showed that only three independent variables were still statistically significant, including compliance with participation in psychological counseling (OR = 3.563, p = 0.000), the years of drug use (OR = 1.078, p = 0.001)and intervention model. Conclusions: Using the detoxification medications combined with appropriate psychological counseling and social support measures will help improve the effectiveness of relapse prevention, which is a kind of alternative community detoxification pattern. Appropriate and standard psychological counseling is very important for anti-drug treatment. The longer the drug addiction lasts, the longer the anti-drug treatment takes. View Full-Text
Keywords: community-based drug treatment; methadone; Jitai tablets; psychological counseling; follow-up study community-based drug treatment; methadone; Jitai tablets; psychological counseling; follow-up study
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rong, C.; Jiang, H.-F.; Zhang, R.-W.; Zhang, L.-J.; Zhang, J.-C.; Zhang, J.; Feng, X.-S. Factors Associated with Relapse among Heroin Addicts: Evidence from a Two-Year Community-Based Follow-Up Study in China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 177.

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