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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1239; doi:10.3390/ijerph13121239

Removal and Biodegradation of Nonylphenol by Four Freshwater Microalgae

1,2,†
,
1,2,†
,
1,2
,
3
,
1,2
and
1,2,*
1
Institute of Hydrobiology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
2
Key Laboratory of Aquatic Eutrophication and Control of Harmful Algal Blooms, Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Guangzhou 510632, China
3
Research Center of Offshore Marine Environment, South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, MEP, Guangzhou 510655, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Warish Ahmed and David J. Beale
Received: 19 September 2016 / Revised: 1 December 2016 / Accepted: 8 December 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
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Abstract

The removal and biodegradation of nonylphenol (NP) by four freshwater microalgae, including three green algae (Scendesmus quadriauda, Chlorella vulgaris, and Ankistrodesmus acicularis) and one cyanobacterium (Chroococcus minutus) were studied in bacteria-free cultures exposed to different concentrations of NP for 5 days. All four algal species showed a rapid and high ability to remove NP (including bioaccumulation and biodegradation). Among these species, A. acicularis (Ankistrodesmus acicularis) had the highest NP removal rate (83.77%) at 120 h when exposed to different NP treatments (0.5–2.5 mg·L−1), followed by C. vulgaris (Chlorella vulgaris) (80.80%), S. quadriauda (Scendesmus quadriauda) (70.96%) and C. minutus (Chroococcus minutus) (64.26%). C. vulgaris had the highest NP biodegradation percentage (68.80%) at 120 h, followed by A. acicularis (65.63%), S. quadriauda (63.10%); and C. minutus (34.91%). The extracellular NP contents were lower than the intracellular NP contents in all tested algae. The ratio of the extracellular NP content and the intracellular NP content ranged from 0.04 to 0.85. Therefore, the removal of NP from the medium was mainly due to the algal degradation. These results indicate that A. acicularis and C. vulgaris are more tolerant to NP and could be used for treatment of NP contaminated aqueous systems effectively by bioremoval and biodegradation. View Full-Text
Keywords: nonylphenol; microalgae; removal; biodegradation; removal mechanism nonylphenol; microalgae; removal; biodegradation; removal mechanism
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MDPI and ACS Style

He, N.; Sun, X.; Zhong, Y.; Sun, K.; Liu, W.; Duan, S. Removal and Biodegradation of Nonylphenol by Four Freshwater Microalgae. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1239.

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