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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1224; doi:10.3390/ijerph13121224

Perfluorinated Compounds in Greenhouse and Open Agricultural Producing Areas of Three Provinces of China: Levels, Sources and Risk Assessment

Key Laboratory of Original Agro-Environmental Quality, Mninistry of Agriculture, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Agro-Environment and Safe-Produt, Agro-Environmental Protection Institute, Tianjin 300191, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Warish Ahmed and David J. Beale
Received: 23 September 2016 / Revised: 24 November 2016 / Accepted: 30 November 2016 / Published: 10 December 2016
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Field investigations on perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) levels in various environmental matrixes were reported, but there is still a lack of PFAA level data for agricultural environments, especially agricultural producing areas, so we collected soil, irrigation water and agricultural product samples from agricultural producing areas in the provinces of Liaoning, Shandong and Sichuan in China. The background pollution from instruments was removed and C4–C18 PFAAs were detected by LC-MS/MS. The concentrations of PFAAs in the top and deep layers of soil were compared, and the levels of PFAAs in different agricultural environments (greenhouses and open agriculture) were analyzed. We found the order of PFAA levels by province was Shandong > Liaoning > Sichuan. A descending trend of PFAA levels from top to deep soil and open to greenhouse agriculture was shown and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was considered as a marker for source analysis. Bean vegetables contribute highly to the overall PFAA load in vegetables. A significant correlation was shown between irrigation water and agricultural products. The EDI (estimated daily intake) from vegetables should be of concern in China. View Full-Text
Keywords: PFBA; PFOA; greenhouse agriculture; source analysis; risk assessment PFBA; PFOA; greenhouse agriculture; source analysis; risk assessment

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, Y.; Tan, D.; Geng, Y.; Wang, L.; Peng, Y.; He, Z.; Xu, Y.; Liu, X. Perfluorinated Compounds in Greenhouse and Open Agricultural Producing Areas of Three Provinces of China: Levels, Sources and Risk Assessment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1224.

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