Next Article in Journal
A Cross-Sectional Study of Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Sponsorship in Airports across Europe and the United States
Next Article in Special Issue
Correlation between Odor Concentration and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) Composition of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS)
Previous Article in Journal
Has Child Restraint System Use Increased among Parents of Children in Shantou, China?
Previous Article in Special Issue
Fuel for Life: Domestic Cooking Fuels and Women’s Health in Rural China
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 960;

Activity Pattern of Urban Adult Students in an Eastern Mediterranean Society

Department of Basic Sciences, Al Zaytoonah University of Jordan, P.O. Box 130, Amman 11733, Jordan
Department of Physics, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan
Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 48, FI-00014 UHEL, Helsinki, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alessandra Cincinelli and Tania Martellini
Received: 15 July 2016 / Revised: 3 September 2016 / Accepted: 7 September 2016 / Published: 28 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Air Quality and Health 2016)
Full-Text   |   PDF [461 KB, uploaded 28 September 2016]   |  


Knowledge of human activity patterns is needed in air pollution exposure and health risk assessment. However, human activity patterns have never been evaluated in the Eastern Mediterranean societies. Therefore, we investigated the activity pattern of 285 subjects (17–63 years) in Amman, Jordan during October to November, 2015. The subjects spent >80% of their time indoors during weekend days and >85% on workdays. They spent ~4.8% and ~5.7% in transportation during weekend days and workdays, respectively. Males had a different activity pattern than females on weekend days, but both genders had similar activity patterns on workdays. On workdays, males spent less time indoors than females. The activity pattern found in this study is a bit different than that for North Americans and Europeans, who spend more time indoors and in transit. The activity pattern found in this study was very different than that observed for Koreans, who spent about 59% and 67% indoors on workdays and weekend, respectively. The main outcomes of this survey can be utilized in human exposure studies. This study and the upcoming future studies have been encouraged and supported by the regional WHO office in Amman. View Full-Text
Keywords: time-spent; indoors; outdoors; traffic; exposure time-spent; indoors; outdoors; traffic; exposure

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Odeh, I.; Hussein, T. Activity Pattern of Urban Adult Students in an Eastern Mediterranean Society. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 960.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top