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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 958; doi:10.3390/ijerph13100958

Consensus Modeling for Prediction of Estrogenic Activity of Ingredients Commonly Used in Sunscreen Products

Division of Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
Division of Nonprescription Drug Products, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20993, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 4 August 2016 / Revised: 16 September 2016 / Accepted: 20 September 2016 / Published: 29 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Disruptors and Public Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2131 KB, uploaded 29 September 2016]   |  


Sunscreen products are predominantly regulated as over-the-counter (OTC) drugs by the US FDA. The “active” ingredients function as ultraviolet filters. Once a sunscreen product is generally recognized as safe and effective (GRASE) via an OTC drug review process, new formulations using these ingredients do not require FDA review and approval, however, the majority of ingredients have never been tested to uncover any potential endocrine activity and their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER) is unknown, despite the fact that this is a very extensively studied target related to endocrine activity. Consequently, we have developed an in silico model to prioritize single ingredient estrogen receptor activity for use when actual animal data are inadequate, equivocal, or absent. It relies on consensus modeling to qualitatively and quantitatively predict ER binding activity. As proof of concept, the model was applied to ingredients commonly used in sunscreen products worldwide and a few reference chemicals. Of the 32 chemicals with unknown ER binding activity that were evaluated, seven were predicted to be active estrogenic compounds. Five of the seven were confirmed by the published data. Further experimental data is needed to confirm the other two predictions. View Full-Text
Keywords: sunscreen; ingredient; estrogenic activity; prediction; model sunscreen; ingredient; estrogenic activity; prediction; model

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Hong, H.; Rua, D.; Sakkiah, S.; Selvaraj, C.; Ge, W.; Tong, W. Consensus Modeling for Prediction of Estrogenic Activity of Ingredients Commonly Used in Sunscreen Products. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 958.

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