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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(1), 55; doi:10.3390/ijerph13010055

The Genetic Diversity and Evolution of HIV-1 Subtype B Epidemic in Puerto Rico

AIDS Research Program, Ponce Health Sciences University-School of Medicine/Ponce Research Institute, 395 Industrial Reparada 2, Ponce, PR 00716-2348, USA
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Academic Editors: Mark Edberg, Barbara E. Hayes, Valerie Montgomery Rice and Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 14 August 2015 / Revised: 20 November 2015 / Accepted: 24 November 2015 / Published: 23 December 2015
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Abstract

HIV-1 epidemics in Caribbean countries, including Puerto Rico, have been reported to be almost exclusively associated with the subtype B virus (HIV-1B). However, while HIV infections associated with other clades have been only sporadically reported, no organized data exist to accurately assess the prevalence of non-subtype B HIV-1 infection. We analyzed the nucleotide sequence data of the HIV pol gene associated with HIV isolates from Puerto Rican patients. The sequences (n = 945) were obtained from our “HIV Genotyping” test file, which has been generated over a period of 14 years (2001–2014). REGA subtyping tool found the following subtypes: B (90%), B-like (3%), B/D recombinant (6%), and D/B recombinant (0.6%). Though there were fewer cases, the following subtypes were also found (in the given proportions): A1B (0.3%), BF1 (0.2%), subtype A (01-AE) (0.1%), subtype A (A2) (0.1%), subtype F (12BF) (0.1%), CRF-39 BF-like (0.1%), and others (0.1%). Some of the recombinants were identified as early as 2001. Although the HIV epidemic in Puerto Rico is primarily associated with HIV-1B virus, our analysis uncovered the presence of other subtypes. There was no indication of subtype C, which has been predominantly associated with heterosexual transmission in other parts of the world. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV-1 subtype B; Puerto Rico; genetic diversity; evolution HIV-1 subtype B; Puerto Rico; genetic diversity; evolution
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

López, P.; Rivera-Amill, V.; Rodríguez, N.; Vargas, F.; Yamamura, Y. The Genetic Diversity and Evolution of HIV-1 Subtype B Epidemic in Puerto Rico. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 55.

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