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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(1), 105; doi:10.3390/ijerph13010105

Personal Care Product Use in Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period: Implications for Exposure Assessment

Independent Research Nurse Consultant, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9, Canada
Population Studies Division, Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Dr., AL 0801A, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 9 October 2015 / Revised: 17 December 2015 / Accepted: 21 December 2015 / Published: 6 January 2016
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Concern regarding the potential for developmental health risks associated with certain chemicals (e.g., phthalates, antibacterials) used in personal care products is well documented; however, current exposure data for pregnant women are limited. The objective of this study was to describe the pattern of personal care product use in pregnancy and the post-partum period. Usage patterns of personal care products were collected at six different time points during pregnancy and once in the postpartum period for a cohort of 80 pregnant women in Ottawa, Canada. The pattern of use was then described and groups of personal care product groups commonly used together were identified using hierarchical cluster analysis. The results showed that product use varied by income and country of birth. General hygiene products were the most commonly used products and were consistently used over time while cosmetic product use declined with advancing pregnancy and post-delivery. Hand soaps and baby products were reported as used more frequently after birth. This study is the first to track personal care product use across pregnancy and into the postpartum period, and suggests that pregnant populations may be a unique group of personal care product users. This information will be useful for exposure assessments. View Full-Text
Keywords: personal care products; pregnancy; reproductive health; exposure; use patterns; concurrent use personal care products; pregnancy; reproductive health; exposure; use patterns; concurrent use

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lang, C.; Fisher, M.; Neisa, A.; MacKinnon, L.; Kuchta, S.; MacPherson, S.; Probert, A.; Arbuckle, T.E. Personal Care Product Use in Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period: Implications for Exposure Assessment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 105.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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