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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(1), 106; doi:10.3390/ijerph13010106

Beyond Smoking Prevalence: Exploring the Variability of Associations between Neighborhood Exposures across Two Nested Spatial Units and Two-Year Smoking Trajectory among Young Adults

1
Département de Médecine Sociale et Préventive, École de Santé Publique (ESPUM), Université de Montréal, 7101, Av. du Parc, Montreal, QC H3N 1X9, Canada
2
Institut de Recherche en Santé Publique de l’Université de Montréal (IRSPUM), 7101, Av. du Parc, Montreal, QC H3N 1X9, Canada
3
Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal (CRCHUM), 850 Saint Denis Street, Montreal, QC H2X 0A9, Canada
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Coral Gartner and Britta Wigginton
Received: 19 November 2015 / Revised: 28 December 2015 / Accepted: 28 December 2015 / Published: 6 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Control 2015)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [299 KB, uploaded 6 January 2016]

Abstract

Young adults have the highest prevalence of smoking amongst all age groups. Significant uptake occurs after high school age. Although neighborhood exposures have been found to be associated with smoking behavior, research on neighborhood exposures and the smoking trajectories among young adults, and on the role of geographic scale in shaping findings, is scarce. We examined associations between neighborhood exposures across two nested, increasingly large spatial units and smoking trajectory over two years among young adults living in Montreal, Canada. A sample of 2093 participants aged 18–25 years from the Interdisciplinary Study of Inequalities in Smoking (ISIS) was surveyed. The dependent variable was self-reported smoking trajectory over the course of two years. Residential addresses, data on presence of tobacco retail outlets, and the presence of smoking accommodation facilities were coded and linked to spatial units. Three-level multinomial models were used to examine associations. The likelihood of being a smoker for 2+ years was significantly greater among those living in larger spatial unit neighborhoods that had a greater presence of smoking accommodation. This association was not statistically significant at the smaller spatial units. Our findings highlight the importance of studying young adults’ smoking trajectories in addition to static smoking outcomes, and point to the relevance of considering spatial scale in studies of neighborhoods and smoking. View Full-Text
Keywords: neighborhood exposures; smoking trajectory; young adults; spatial scale; multilevel neighborhood exposures; smoking trajectory; young adults; spatial scale; multilevel
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ghenadenik, A.E.; Frohlich, K.L.; Gauvin, L. Beyond Smoking Prevalence: Exploring the Variability of Associations between Neighborhood Exposures across Two Nested Spatial Units and Two-Year Smoking Trajectory among Young Adults. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 106.

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