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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(9), 11815-11828; doi:10.3390/ijerph120911815

The Risk of Reported Cryptosporidiosis in Children Aged <5 Years in Australia is Highest in Very Remote Regions

National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Building 62, Australian National University, Acton, Canberra 2602, Australia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Samuel Dorevitch
Received: 14 July 2015 / Revised: 25 August 2015 / Accepted: 26 August 2015 / Published: 18 September 2015
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Abstract

The incidence of cryptosporidiosis is highest in children <5 years, yet little is known about disease patterns across urban and rural areas of Australia. In this study, we examine whether the risk of reported cryptosporidiosis in children <5 years varies across an urban-rural gradient, after controlling for season and gender. Using Australian data on reported cryptosporidiosis from 2001 to 2012, we spatially linked disease data to an index of geographic remoteness to examine the geographic variation in cryptosporidiosis risk using negative binomial regression. The Incidence Risk Ratio (IRR) of reported cryptosporidiosis was higher in inner regional (IRR 1.4 95% CI 1.2–1.7, p < 0.001), and outer regional areas (IRR 2.4 95% CI 2.2–2.9, p < 0.001), and in remote (IRR 5.2 95% CI 4.3–6.2, p < 0.001) and very remote (IRR 8.2 95% CI 6.9–9.8, p < 0.001) areas, compared to major cities. A linear test for trend showed a statistically significant trend with increasing remoteness. Remote communities need to be a priority for future targeted health promotion and disease prevention interventions to reduce cryptosporidiosis in children <5 years. View Full-Text
Keywords: cryptosporidiosis; children; geographic; remote cryptosporidiosis; children; geographic; remote
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lal, A.; Fearnley, E.; Kirk, M. The Risk of Reported Cryptosporidiosis in Children Aged <5 Years in Australia is Highest in Very Remote Regions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 11815-11828.

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