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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(9), 11466-11485; doi:10.3390/ijerph120911466

Associations among Human-Associated Fecal Contamination, Microcystis aeruginosa, and Microcystin at Lake Erie Beaches

1
Division of Environmental Health Sciences, College of Public Health, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
2
Department of Food Sciences & Technology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Samuel Dorevitch
Received: 20 June 2015 / Revised: 4 September 2015 / Accepted: 8 September 2015 / Published: 11 September 2015
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Abstract

Lake Erie beaches exhibit impaired water quality due to fecal contamination and cyanobacterial blooms, though few studies address potential relationships between these two public health hazards. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), Microcystis aeruginosa was monitored in conjunction with a human-associated fecal marker (Bacteroides fragilis group; g-Bfra), microcystin, and water quality parameters at two beaches to evaluate their potential associations. During the summer of 2010, water samples were collected 32 times from both Euclid and Villa Angela beaches. The phycocyanin intergenic spacer (PC-IGS) and the microcystin-producing (mcyA) gene in M. aeruginosa were quantified with qPCR. PC-IGS and mcyA were detected in 50.0% and 39.1% of samples, respectively, and showed increased occurrences after mid-August. Correlation and regression analyses showed that water temperature was negatively correlated with M. aeruginosa markers and microcystin. The densities of mcyA and the g-Bfra were predicted by nitrate, implicating fecal contamination as contributing to the growth of M. aeruginosa by nitrate loading. Microcystin was correlated with mcyA (r = 0.413, p < 0.01), suggesting toxin-producing M. aeruginosa populations may significantly contribute to microcystin production. Additionally, microcystin was correlated with total phosphorus (r = 0.628, p < 0.001), which was higher at Euclid (p < 0.05), possibly contributing to higher microcystin concentrations at Euclid. View Full-Text
Keywords: harmful algal bloom; cyanotoxin; microbial source tracking; urban beaches; Lake Erie harmful algal bloom; cyanotoxin; microbial source tracking; urban beaches; Lake Erie
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Lee, C.; Marion, J.W.; Cheung, M.; Lee, C.S.; Lee, J. Associations among Human-Associated Fecal Contamination, Microcystis aeruginosa, and Microcystin at Lake Erie Beaches. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 11466-11485.

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