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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(7), 7777-7793; doi:10.3390/ijerph120707777

Short-Term Effects of Fine Particulate Matter and Temperature on Lung Function among Healthy College Students in Wuhan, China

1
Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, China
2
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, China
3
Department of Public Health, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501, Japan
4
Environmental Health Sciences Division and Integrated Health Risk Assessment Section, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 15 May 2015 / Revised: 2 July 2015 / Accepted: 6 July 2015 / Published: 10 July 2015
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Abstract

Ambient fine particulate matter (PM) has been associated with impaired lung function, but the effect of temperature on lung function and the potential interaction effect between PM and temperature remain uncertain. To estimate the short-term effects of PM2.5 combined with temperature on lung function, we measured the daily peak expiratory flow (PEF) in a panel of 37 healthy college students in four different seasons. Meanwhile, we also monitored daily concentrations of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm), ambient temperature and relative humidity of the study area, where the study participants lived and attended school. Associations of air pollutants and temperature with lung function were assessed by generalized estimating equations (GEEs). A 10 μg/m3 increase of indoor PM2.5 was associated with a change of −2.09 L/min in evening PEF (95%CI: −3.73 L/min–−0.51 L/min) after adjusting for season, height, gender, temperature and relative humidity. The changes of −2.17 L/min (95%CI: −3.81 L/min– −0.52 L/min) and −2.18 L/min (95%CI: −3.96 L/min–−0.41 L/min) in evening PEF were also observed after adjusting for outdoor SO2 and NO2 measured by Environmental Monitoring Center 3 kilometers away, respectively. An increase in ambient temperature was found to be associated with a decrease in lung function and our results revealed a small but significant antagonistic interactive effect between PM2.5 and temperature. Our findings suggest that ambient PM2.5 has an acute adverse effect on lung function in young healthy adults, and that temperature also plays an important role. View Full-Text
Keywords: college students; particulate matter; temperature; lung function; GEE college students; particulate matter; temperature; lung function; GEE
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhang, Y.; He, M.; Wu, S.; Zhu, Y.; Wang, S.; Shima, M.; Tamura, K.; Ma, L. Short-Term Effects of Fine Particulate Matter and Temperature on Lung Function among Healthy College Students in Wuhan, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 7777-7793.

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