U.S. Recreational Water Quality Criteria: A Vision for the Future
AbstractThis manuscript evaluates the U.S. Recreational Water Quality Criteria (RWQC) of 2012, based upon discussions during a conference held 11–13 March 2013, in Honolulu, Hawaii. The RWQC of 2012 did not meet expectations among the research community because key recommended studies were not completed, new data to assess risks to bathers exposed to non-point sources of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were not developed, and the 2012 RWQC did not show marked improvements in strategies for assessing health risks for bathers using all types of recreational waters. The development of the 2012 RWQC was limited in scope because the epidemiologic studies at beach sites were restricted to beaches with point sources of pollution and water samples were monitored for only enterococci. The vision for the future is development of effective RWQC guidelines based on epidemiologic and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) studies for sewage specific markers, as well as human enteric pathogens so that health risks for bathers at all recreational waters can be determined. The 2012 RWQC introduced a program for states and tribes to develop site-specific water quality criteria, and in theory this approach can be used to address the limitations associated with the measurements of the traditional FIB. View Full-Text
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Fujioka, R.S.; Solo-Gabriele, H.M.; Byappanahalli, M.N.; Kirs, M. U.S. Recreational Water Quality Criteria: A Vision for the Future. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 7752-7776.
Fujioka RS, Solo-Gabriele HM, Byappanahalli MN, Kirs M. U.S. Recreational Water Quality Criteria: A Vision for the Future. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2015; 12(7):7752-7776.Chicago/Turabian Style
Fujioka, Roger S.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Kirs, Marek. 2015. "U.S. Recreational Water Quality Criteria: A Vision for the Future." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 12, no. 7: 7752-7776.