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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(5), 4602-4616; doi:10.3390/ijerph120504602

Lead Isotope Characterization of Petroleum Fuels in Taipei, Taiwan

1
Agro-environment Laboratory (AELab), Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei City 106, Taiwan
2
Department of Travel and Ecotourism, Tungnan University, New Taipei City 222, Taiwan
3
Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu County 310, Taiwan
4
High-Precision Mass Spectrometry and Environmental Change Laboratory (HISPEC), Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei City 106, Taiwan
5
Ecological Engineering Research Center, National Taiwan University, Taipei City 106, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Howard W. Mielke
Received: 14 March 2015 / Revised: 17 April 2015 / Accepted: 20 April 2015 / Published: 24 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lead: Risk Assessment and Health Effects)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1634 KB, uploaded 24 April 2015]   |  

Abstract

Leaded gasoline in Taiwan was gradually phased out from 1983 to 2000. However, it is unclear whether unleaded gasoline still contributes to atmospheric lead (Pb) exposure in urban areas. In this study, Pb isotopic compositions of unleaded gasolines, with octane numbers of 92, 95, 98, and diesel from two local suppliers in Taipei were determined by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with a two-sigma uncertainty of ± 0.02 %. Lead isotopic ratios of vehicle exhaust (208Pb/207Pb: 2.427, 206Pb/207Pb: 1.148, as estimated from petroleum fuels) overlap with the reported aerosol data. This agreement indicates that local unleaded petroleum fuels, containing 10–45 ng·Pb·g−1, are merely one contributor among various sources to urban aerosol Pb. Additionally, the distinction between the products of the two companies is statistically significant in their individual 208Pb/206Pb ratios (p-value < 0.001, t test). Lead isotopic characterization appears to be applicable as a “fingerprinting” tool for tracing the sources of Pb pollution. View Full-Text
Keywords: stable lead isotopes; environmental forensics; petroleum fuels stable lead isotopes; environmental forensics; petroleum fuels
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yao, P.-H.; Shyu, G.-S.; Chang, Y.-F.; Chou, Y.-C.; Shen, C.-C.; Chou, C.-S.; Chang, T.-K. Lead Isotope Characterization of Petroleum Fuels in Taipei, Taiwan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 4602-4616.

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