Cadmium Modulates Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis
AbstractThe aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of cadmium exposure on Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 35984) biofilm formation. Bacteria were cultured in the absence or presence of different concentrations (0–50 µM) of cadmium. Biofilm formation and bacterial viability were assessed. Quantitative Real Time-PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to determine the mRNA expression of molecular markers of S. epidermidis biofilm formation and dispersion. S. epidermidis biofilm formation was stimulated (p < 0.001) by 1.56 and 3.13 µM cadmium. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis confirmed an increase in biofilm thickness (23 and 22 µm, versus 17.8 µm in the controls) after exposure to 1.56 or 3.13 µM cadmium, respectively. qRT-PCR was performed showing the up-regulation of atlE, embp, aap, icaA and icaB after exposure to 3.13 µM cadmium. Taken together, these findings show that cadmium at low, sub-toxic concentrations acts as inducer of S. epidermidis biofilm formation. View Full-Text
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Wu, X.; Santos, R.R.; Fink-Gremmels, J. Cadmium Modulates Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 2878-2894.
Wu X, Santos RR, Fink-Gremmels J. Cadmium Modulates Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2015; 12(3):2878-2894.Chicago/Turabian Style
Wu, Xueqing; Santos, Regiane R.; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna. 2015. "Cadmium Modulates Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 12, no. 3: 2878-2894.