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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(3), 2878-2894; doi:10.3390/ijerph120302878

Cadmium Modulates Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis

Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division Veterinary Pharmacology, Pharmacotherapy and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80152, 3584 CM Utrecht, The Netherlands
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jose A. Centeno
Received: 2 January 2015 / Revised: 10 February 2015 / Accepted: 25 February 2015 / Published: 4 March 2015
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Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of cadmium exposure on Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 35984) biofilm formation. Bacteria were cultured in the absence or presence of different concentrations (0–50 µM) of cadmium. Biofilm formation and bacterial viability were assessed. Quantitative Real Time-PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to determine the mRNA expression of molecular markers of S. epidermidis biofilm formation and dispersion. S. epidermidis biofilm formation was stimulated (p < 0.001) by 1.56 and 3.13 µM cadmium. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis confirmed an increase in biofilm thickness (23 and 22 µm, versus 17.8 µm in the controls) after exposure to 1.56 or 3.13 µM cadmium, respectively. qRT-PCR was performed showing the up-regulation of atlE, embp, aap, icaA and icaB after exposure to 3.13 µM cadmium. Taken together, these findings show that cadmium at low, sub-toxic concentrations acts as inducer of S. epidermidis biofilm formation. View Full-Text
Keywords: ATCC35984; Staphylococcus epidermidis; cadmium; biofilm; polysaccharide intercellular adhesion; accumulation-associated protein ATCC35984; Staphylococcus epidermidis; cadmium; biofilm; polysaccharide intercellular adhesion; accumulation-associated protein
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, X.; Santos, R.R.; Fink-Gremmels, J. Cadmium Modulates Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 2878-2894.

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