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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(2), 1788-1802; doi:10.3390/ijerph120201788

On-Line Monitoring of Escherichia coli in Raw Water at Oset Drinking Water Treatment Plant, Oslo (Norway)

1
Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Gaustadalléen 21, Oslo 0349, Norway
2
Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås 1432, Norway
3
Colifast AS, Strandveien 33, Lysaker 1366, Norway
4
Oslo Water and Sewerage Works, Midtoddveien 40, Oslo 0494, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Roberto Spurio
Received: 10 December 2014 / Revised: 31 December 2014 / Accepted: 27 January 2015 / Published: 4 February 2015
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Abstract

The fully automated Colifast ALARMTM has been used for two years for daily monitoring of the presence/absence of Escherichia coli in 100 mL raw water at Oset drinking water treatment plant in Oslo, Norway. The raw water is extracted from 35 m depth from the Lake Maridalsvannet. E. coli was detected in 18% of the daily samples. In general, most samples positive for E. coli were observed during the autumn turnover periods, but even in some samples taken during warm and dry days in July, with stable temperature stratification in the lake, E. coli was detected. The daily samples gave useful additional information compared with the weekly routine samples about the hygienic raw water quality and the hygienic barrier efficiency of the lake under different weather conditions and seasons. The winter 2013/2014 was much warmer than the winter 2012/2013. The monitoring supported the hypothesis that warmer winters with shorter periods with ice cover on lakes, which may be a consequence of climate changes, may reduce the hygienic barrier efficiency in deep lakes used as drinking water sources. View Full-Text
Keywords: on-line monitoring; Escherichia coli; raw water; drinking water; climate change on-line monitoring; Escherichia coli; raw water; drinking water; climate change
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tryland, I.; Eregno, F.E.; Braathen, H.; Khalaf, G.; Sjølander, I.; Fossum, M. On-Line Monitoring of Escherichia coli in Raw Water at Oset Drinking Water Treatment Plant, Oslo (Norway). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 1788-1802.

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