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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(2), 1803-1816; doi:10.3390/ijerph120201803

Estimation of Seasonal Risk Caused by the Intake of Lead, Mercury and Cadmium through Freshwater Fish Consumption from Urban Water Reservoirs in Arid Areas of Northern Mexico

1
Environment and Energy Department, Advanced Materials Research Center (CIMAV) S.C., Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih. 31109, Mexico
2
Tecnológico de Monterrey, Campus Chihuahua. Av. Heróico Colegio Militar 4700, Chihuahua, Chih. 31302, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 8 December 2014 / Revised: 8 January 2015 / Accepted: 27 January 2015 / Published: 4 February 2015
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Abstract

Bioavailability and hence bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish species depends on seasonal conditions causing different risks levels to human health during the lifetime. Mercury, cadmium and lead contents in fish from Chihuahua (Mexico) water reservoirs have been investigated to assess contamination levels and safety for consumers. Muscle samples of fish were collected across the seasons. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, and mercury by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest concentrations of cadmium (0.235 mg/kg), mercury (0.744 mg/kg) and lead (4.298 mg/kg) exceeded the maximum levels set by European regulations and Codex Alimentarius. Lead concentrations found in fish from three water reservoirs also surpassed the limit of 1 mg/kg established by Mexican regulations. The provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) suggested by the World Health Organization for methyl mercury (1.6 µg/kg bw per week) was exceeded in the spring season (1.94 µg/kg bw per week). This might put consumers at risk of mercury poisoning. View Full-Text
Keywords: mercury; cadmium; lead; season; freshwater fish; muscle; provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) mercury; cadmium; lead; season; freshwater fish; muscle; provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nevárez, M.; Leal, L.O.; Moreno, M. Estimation of Seasonal Risk Caused by the Intake of Lead, Mercury and Cadmium through Freshwater Fish Consumption from Urban Water Reservoirs in Arid Areas of Northern Mexico. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 1803-1816.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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