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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(2), 1466-1486; doi:10.3390/ijerph120201466

Determinants of Exposure to Fragranced Product Chemical Mixtures in a Sample of Twins

1
Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA
2
Department of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
3
Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Satinder Kaur
Received: 29 November 2014 / Revised: 18 December 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2015 / Published: 27 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Contaminants in the Environment)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [979 KB, uploaded 27 January 2015]   |  

Abstract

Fragranced product chemical mixtures may be relevant for environmental health, but little is known about exposure. We analyzed results from an olfactory challenge with the synthetic musk fragrance 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-cyclopento-γ-2-benzopyran (HHCB), and a questionnaire about attitudes toward chemical safety and use of fragranced products, in a sample of 140 white and 17 black twin pairs attending a festival in Ohio. Data for each product were analyzed using robust ordered logistic regressions with random intercepts for “twin pair” and “sharing address with twin”, and fixed effects for sex, age, education, and “ever being bothered by fragrances”. Due to the small number of black participants, models were restricted to white participants except when examining racial differences. Overall patterns of association were summarized across product-types through random-effects meta-analysis. Principal components analysis was used to summarize clustering of product use. The dominant axis of variability in fragranced product use was “more vs. less”, followed by a distinction between household cleaning products and personal care products. Overall, males used fragranced products less frequently than females (adjusted proportionate odds ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.33, 0.93). This disparity was driven by personal care products (0.42, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.96), rather than household cleaning products (0.79, 95% CI: 0.49, 1.25) and was particularly evident for body lotion (0.12, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.27). Overall usage differed by age (0.64, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.95) but only hand soap and shampoo products differed significantly. “Ever being bothered by fragrance” had no overall association (0.92, 95% CI: 0.65, 1.30) but was associated with laundry detergent use (0.46, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.93). Similarly, black vs. white differences on average were not significant (1.34, 95% CI: 0.55, 3.28) but there were apparent differences in use of shampoo (0.01, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.69), body lotion (4.67, 95% CI: 1.18, 18.47), and perfume (6.22, 95% CI:1.08, 35.89). There was no overall association with thinking about product risks (0.90, 95% CI: 0.79, 1.02), nor with inability to smell HHCB (0.84, 95% CI: 0.63, 1.12). Exposure to fragranced products may differ demographically. The relevance for health disparities should be studied. View Full-Text
Keywords: fragrance; exposure assessment; risk perception; environmental psychology; galaxolide; HHCB; anosmia; exposure disparities; women’s health fragrance; exposure assessment; risk perception; environmental psychology; galaxolide; HHCB; anosmia; exposure disparities; women’s health
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gribble, M.O.; Bandeen-Roche, K.; Fox, M.A. Determinants of Exposure to Fragranced Product Chemical Mixtures in a Sample of Twins. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 1466-1486.

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