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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(10), 13053-13068; doi:10.3390/ijerph121013053

Coarse Particulate Air Pollution Associated with Increased Risk of Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in a Tropical City, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

1
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
2
Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
3
Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
4
Department of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
5
Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institute, Miaol 350, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 5 August 2015 / Revised: 25 September 2015 / Accepted: 14 October 2015 / Published: 16 October 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [754 KB, uploaded 16 October 2015]   |  

Abstract

This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between coarse particles (PM2.5–10) levels and frequency of hospital admissions for respiratory diseases (RD) in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Hospital admissions for RD including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and pneumonia, and ambient air pollution data levels for Kaohsiung were obtained for the period from 2006 to 2010. The relative risk of hospital admissions for RD was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. For the single pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), increased rate of admissions for RD were significantly associated with higher coarse PM levels only on cool days (<25 °C), with a 10 µg/m3 elevation in PM2.5–10 concentrations associated with a 3% (95% CI = 1%–5%) rise in COPD admissions, 4% (95% CI = 1%–7%) increase in asthma admissions, and 3% (95% CI = 2%–4%) rise in pneumonia admissions. No significant associations were found between coarse particle levels and the number of hospital admissions for RD on warm days. In the two-pollutant models, PM2.5–10 levels remained significantly correlated with higher rate of RD admissions even controlling for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, or ozone on cool days. This study provides evidence that higher levels of PM2.5–10 enhance the risk of hospital admissions for RD on cool days. View Full-Text
Keywords: fine particles; coarse particles; air pollution; case-crossover; respiratory diseases; hospital admissions fine particles; coarse particles; air pollution; case-crossover; respiratory diseases; hospital admissions
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cheng, M.-H.; Chiu, H.-F.; Yang, C.-Y. Coarse Particulate Air Pollution Associated with Increased Risk of Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in a Tropical City, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 13053-13068.

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