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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(10), 13038-13052; doi:10.3390/ijerph121013038

Association of Sand Dust Particles with Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Symptoms in Adult Patients with Asthma in Western Japan Using Light Detection and Ranging: A Panel Study

1
Department of Respiratory Medicine and Rheumatology, Tottori University Faculty of Medicine, 36-1 Nishi-cho, Yonago 683-8504, Japan
2
Department of Data Science, The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, 10-3 Midori-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8562, Japan
3
Regional Atmospheric Environment Section, Center for Regional Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2, Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506, Japan
4
Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohnohigashi, Osakasayama 589-0014, Japan
5
Department of Respiratory Medicine, San-in Rosai Hospital, 1-8-1 Kaikeshinden, Yonago 683-0002, Japan
6
Hosshoji Clinic, 286-4 Hossyouji, Nanbuchou, Saihaku 683-0351, Japan
7
Department of Respiratory Medicine, Matsue City Hospital, 32-1 Noshirachou, Matsue 690-0045, Japan
8
Ohga Clinic, 4-2-1 Nishifukuhara, Yonago 683-0805, Japan
9
The Board of Directors, Tottori University, 36-1 Nishi-cho, Yonago 683-8504, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 12 August 2015 / Revised: 28 September 2015 / Accepted: 13 October 2015 / Published: 16 October 2015
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Abstract

Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) can estimate daily volumes of sand dust particles from the East Asian desert to Japan. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between sand dust particles and pulmonary function, and respiratory symptoms in adult patients with asthma. One hundred thirty-seven patients were included in the study. From March 2013 to May 2013, the patients measured their morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) and kept daily lower respiratory symptom diaries. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the correlation of the median daily levels of sand dust particles, symptoms scores, and PEF. A heavy sand dust day was defined as an hourly concentration of sand dust particles of >0.1 km−1. By this criterion, there were 8 heavy sand dust days during the study period. Elevated sand dust particles levels were significantly associated with the symptom score (0.04; 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.03, 0.05), and this increase persisted for 5 days. There was no significant association between PEF and heavy dust exposure (0.01 L/min; 95% CI, −0.62, 0.11). The present study found that sand dust particles were significantly associated with worsened lower respiratory tract symptoms in adult patients with asthma, but not with pulmonary function. View Full-Text
Keywords: adult asthma; light detection and ranging; peak expiratory flow; respiratory symptom; sand dust particles adult asthma; light detection and ranging; peak expiratory flow; respiratory symptom; sand dust particles
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Watanabe, M.; Noma, H.; Kurai, J.; Shimizu, A.; Sano, H.; Kato, K.; Mikami, M.; Ueda, Y.; Tatsukawa, T.; Ohga, H.; Yamasaki, A.; Igishi, T.; Kitano, H.; Shimizu, E. Association of Sand Dust Particles with Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Symptoms in Adult Patients with Asthma in Western Japan Using Light Detection and Ranging: A Panel Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 13038-13052.

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