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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(10), 12530-12542; doi:10.3390/ijerph121012530

Ag Nanoparticles (Ag NM300K) in the Terrestrial Environment: Effects at Population and Cellular Level in Folsomia candida (Collembola)

1
Department of Biology & CESAM, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193, Portugal
2
Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Vejlsovej 25, PO BOX 314, Silkeborg DK-8600, Denmark
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 12 August 2015 / Revised: 25 September 2015 / Accepted: 29 September 2015 / Published: 9 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Fate and Effect of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials)
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Abstract

The effects of nanomaterials have been primarily assessed based on standard ecotoxicity guidelines. However, by adapting alternative measures the information gained could be enhanced considerably, e.g., studies should focus on more mechanistic approaches. Here, the environmental risk posed by the presence of silver nanoparticles (Ag NM300K) in soil was investigated, anchoring population and cellular level effects, i.e., survival, reproduction (28 days) and oxidative stress markers (0, 2, 4, 6, 10 days). The standard species Folsomia candida was used. Measured markers included catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), total glutathione (TG), metallothionein (MT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Results showed that AgNO3 was more toxic than AgNPs at the population level: reproduction EC20 and EC50 was ca. 2 and 4 times lower, respectively. At the cellular level Correspondence Analysis showed a clear separation between AgNO3 and AgNP throughout time. Results showed differences in the mechanisms, indicating a combined effect of released Ag+ (MT and GST) and of AgNPs (CAT, GR, TG, LPO). Hence, clear advantages from mechanistic approaches are shown, but also that time is of importance when measuring such responses. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidant defenses; mechanisms of response; soil invertebrates. antioxidant defenses; mechanisms of response; soil invertebrates.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mendes, L.A.; Maria, V.L.; Scott-Fordsmand, J.J.; Amorim, M.J.B. Ag Nanoparticles (Ag NM300K) in the Terrestrial Environment: Effects at Population and Cellular Level in Folsomia candida (Collembola). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 12530-12542.

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