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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(10), 12016-12029; doi:10.3390/ijerph121012016

Simultaneous Degradation of Estrone, 17β-Estradiol and 17α-Ethinyl Estradiol in an Aqueous UV/H2O2 System

1
College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China
2
School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University of Science and Technology, Hangzhou 310023, China
3
Water Resources and Environmental Institute, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361005, China
4
College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China
5
College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miklas Scholz
Received: 25 June 2015 / Revised: 17 September 2015 / Accepted: 21 September 2015 / Published: 25 September 2015
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Abstract

UV/H2O2, which is an advanced treatment technology used to reduce multiple contaminants, is effective in potable water treatment. Simultaneous degradation effects and kinetics of three types of coexisting micropollutant estrogens (steroid estrogens, SEs), including estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2), in deionized water were studied. Experiments were carried out with ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiation, together with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), in a cylinder photoreactor. The results demonstrated that the degradation processes of all of the estrogens strongly fit first-order kinetics. Single solutions of E1, E2 and EE2 showed higher degradation rates and removal efficiencies under the same reaction conditions compared with those under mixed conditions. Coexisting combinations of estrogens were put into the UV/H2O2 system to estimate their possible competitive influences on each other by examining their removal efficiencies and reaction rate constant, k, values. E1 is predominantly reduced rapidly during the competition, while the presence of other estrogens has negligible impacts on E1; however, the degradation of E2 and EE2 is affected by the competitive background, not in relation to the types but to the existing amounts. In the UV/H2O2 system, photocatalysis of the estrogens can stably produce an intermediate X, with the highest quantity coming from E1, while considerably lower quantities are obtained from E2 and EE2. View Full-Text
Keywords: UV/H2O2; steroid estrogens; competitive degradation; photocatalysis; water treatment UV/H2O2; steroid estrogens; competitive degradation; photocatalysis; water treatment
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ma, X.; Zhang, C.; Deng, J.; Song, Y.; Li, Q.; Guo, Y.; Li, C. Simultaneous Degradation of Estrone, 17β-Estradiol and 17α-Ethinyl Estradiol in an Aqueous UV/H2O2 System. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 12016-12029.

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