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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(8), 7725-7739; doi:10.3390/ijerph110807725

In Vitro Interactions between 17β-Estradiol and DNA Result in Formation of the Hormone-DNA Complexes

1
Department of Ecology and Diseases of Game, Fish and Bees, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackeho 1–3, CZ-612 42 Brno, Czech Republic
2
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno, Czech Republic
3
Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 May 2014 / Revised: 22 July 2014 / Accepted: 24 July 2014 / Published: 31 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Disruptors and Human Health)
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Abstract

Beyond the role of 17β-estradiol (E2) in reproduction and during the menstrual cycle, it has been shown to modulate numerous physiological processes such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation and ion transport in many tissues. The pathways in which estrogens affect an organism have been partially described, although many questions still exist regarding estrogens’ interaction with biomacromolecules. Hence, the present study showed the interaction of four oligonucleotides (17, 20, 24 and/or 38-mer) with E2. The strength of these interactions was evaluated using optical methods, showing that the interaction is influenced by three major factors, namely: oligonucleotide length, E2 concentration and interaction time. In addition, the denaturation phenomenon of DNA revealed that the binding of E2 leads to destabilization of hydrogen bonds between the nitrogenous bases of DNA strands resulting in a decrease of their melting temperatures (Tm). To obtain a more detailed insight into these interactions, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was employed. This study revealed that E2 with DNA forms non-covalent physical complexes, observed as the mass shifts for app. 270 Da (Mr of E2) to higher molecular masses. Taken together, our results indicate that E2 can affect biomacromolecules, as circulating oligonucleotides, which can trigger mutations, leading to various unwanted effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer; denaturation; endocrine disruptors; estrogens; nucleic acids; spectrometry cancer; denaturation; endocrine disruptors; estrogens; nucleic acids; spectrometry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Heger, Z.; Guran, R.; Zitka, O.; Beklova, M.; Adam, V.; Kizek, R. In Vitro Interactions between 17β-Estradiol and DNA Result in Formation of the Hormone-DNA Complexes. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 7725-7739.

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