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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(8), 7575-7591; doi:10.3390/ijerph110807575

Assessing Health Risk due to Exposure to Arsenic in Drinking Water in Hanam Province, Vietnam

1
Center for Public Health and Ecosystem Research (CENPHER), Hanoi School of Public Health, Hanoi, 138 Giang Vo Street, Hanoi, Vietnam
2
Hanoi Medical College, 35 Doan Thi Diem Street, Hanoi, Vietnam
3
Department of Environmental Health, Hanoi School of Public Health, 138 Giang Vo Street, Hanoi, Vietnam
4
Sandec-Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG), Ueberlandstrass 133, CH-8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
5
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH), Socinstrasse 57, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland
6
International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Hanoi, Vietnam
Now with the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP), Department of Public Health and the Environment, World Health Organization, Geneva 1211, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 April 2014 / Revised: 14 July 2014 / Accepted: 16 July 2014 / Published: 24 July 2014
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Abstract

We assessed health risks related to Arsenic (As) in contaminated drinking water in Hanam, applying the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework, which promotes stakeholder involvement in risk assessments. As concentrations in 300 tube-well water samples, before and after filtration, were analyzed and the water consumption levels in 150 households were estimated. Skin cancer risk was characterized using Cancer Slope Factor index and lifetime average daily dose with a probabilistic approach. The results showed that arsenic concentrations in tube-well water ranged from 8–579 ppb (mean 301 ppb) before filtration and current sand filters used by the households did not meet the standard for As removal. Arsenic daily consumption of 40% of the adults exceeded the level of TDI (Tolerable Daily Intake) at 1 µg/kg/day. The average skin cancer risk in adults due to consuming filtered tube-well water for drinking purpose were 25.3 × 10−5 (using only well water) and 7.6 × 10−5 (using both well and rain water). The skin cancer risk would be 11.5 times higher if the water was not filtered. Improvement of filtration measures or the replacement of the current drinking water sources to minimize the health risks to the local population is urgently needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Arsenic; drinking water; skin cancer risk; environmental health risk assessment; Vietnam Arsenic; drinking water; skin cancer risk; environmental health risk assessment; Vietnam
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Huy, T.B.; Tuyet-Hanh, T.T.; Johnston, R.; Nguyen-Viet, H. Assessing Health Risk due to Exposure to Arsenic in Drinking Water in Hanam Province, Vietnam. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 7575-7591.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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