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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 3743-3764; doi:10.3390/ijerph110403743

Exposures of 129 Preschool Children to Organochlorines, Organophosphates, Pyrethroids, and Acid Herbicides at Their Homes and Daycares in North Carolina

1
National Exposure Research Laboratory, United States Environmental Protection Agency, 109 T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
2
Battelle, Durham, NC 27713, USA
3
Battelle, Columbus, OH 43201, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 February 2014 / Revised: 21 March 2014 / Accepted: 24 March 2014 / Published: 3 April 2014
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Abstract

Few data exist on the concurrent exposures of young children to past-use and current-use pesticides in their everyday environments. In this further analysis of study data, we quantified the potential exposures and intake doses of 129 preschool children, ages 20 to 66 months, to 16 pesticides (eight organochlorines, two organophosphates, three pyrethroids, and three acid herbicides). Environmental samples (soil, dust, outdoor air, and indoor air) and personal samples (hand wipes, solid food, and liquid food) were collected at 129 homes and 13 daycare centers in six counties in North Carolina between 2000 and 2001. α-Chlordane, γ-chlordane, heptachlor, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, cis-permethrin, trans-permethrin, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were detected ≥50% in two or more media in both settings. Of these pesticides, the children’s estimated median potential intake doses through dietary ingestion, nondietary ingestion, and inhalation routes were the highest for 2,4-D and cis/trans-permethrin (both 4.84 ng/kg/day), cis/trans-permethrin (2.39 ng/kg/day), and heptachlor (1.71 ng/kg/day), respectively. The children’s estimated median potential aggregate intake doses by all three routes were quantifiable for chlorpyrifos (4.6 ng/kg/day), cis/trans-permethrin (12.5 ng/kg/day), and 2,4-D (4.9 ng/kg/day). In conclusion, these children were likely exposed daily to several pesticides from several sources and routes at their homes and daycares. View Full-Text
Keywords: children; pesticides; exposure; intake dose; residences; daycare centers children; pesticides; exposure; intake dose; residences; daycare centers
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Morgan, M.K.; Wilson, N.K.; Chuang, J.C. Exposures of 129 Preschool Children to Organochlorines, Organophosphates, Pyrethroids, and Acid Herbicides at Their Homes and Daycares in North Carolina. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 3743-3764.

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