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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(3), 3096-3107; doi:10.3390/ijerph110303096
Article

Modeling the Effects of Indoor Passive Smoking at Home, Work, or Other Households on Adult Cardiovascular and Mental Health: The Scottish Health Survey, 2008–2011

1,2
1 School of the Built Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, EH14 4AS, Edinburgh, Scotland EH14 4AS, UK 2 Owens Institute for Behavioral Research, University of Georgia, 215 S Jackson St. Athens, GA 30602, USA 
Received: 4 February 2014 / Revised: 27 February 2014 / Accepted: 4 March 2014 / Published: 13 March 2014
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Abstract

Passive smoking has contributed increased risks of cardiovascular disease, mental health, and mortality, but the cumulative effects from work or other households were less studied. Therefore, it was aimed to model the effects of indoor passive smoking from own home, work, and other households in a country-wide, population-based setting. Data in the Scottish Health Survey between 2008 and 2011 after the law banning smoking in public places were analyzed. Information including demographics, lifestyle factors, and self-reported cardiovascular disease and mental health was obtained by household interview. Analyses included chi-square test and survey-weighted logistic regression modeling. After full adjustment, it was observed that being exposed to indoor passive smoking, in particular in more than two places of exposure, was significantly associated with risks of stroke, angina, heart attack, abnormal heart rhythms, and GHQ ≥ 12. The significance remained for angina, GHQ ≥ 12 and probably heart attack in never smokers. The cumulative risks also impacted on sleep problems, self-recognition, making decisions, self-confidence, under strain constantly, depressed, happiness and self-worth. The significance remained for sleep problems, self-confidence, under strain constantly, depressed, and happiness in never smokers. Elimination of indoor passive smoking from different sources should still be a focus in future public health programs.
Keywords: housing; public opinion; policy; public health; homeless; social determinants housing; public opinion; policy; public health; homeless; social determinants
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Shiue, I. Modeling the Effects of Indoor Passive Smoking at Home, Work, or Other Households on Adult Cardiovascular and Mental Health: The Scottish Health Survey, 2008–2011. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 3096-3107.

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