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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(3), 3086-3095; doi:10.3390/ijerph110303086
Article

Sensitivity of Oncomelania hupensis to Niclosamide: A Nation-Wide Survey in China

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1 Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases, 117 Yangxiang, Meiyuan, Wuxi 214064, Jiangsu, China 2 Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Parasites, 117 Yangxiang, Meiyuan, Wuxi 214064, Jiangsu, China 3 Key Laboratory on Technology for Parasitic Disease Prevention and Control, Ministry of Health, 117 Yangxiang, Meiyuan, Wuxi 214064, Jiangsu, China
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 January 2014 / Revised: 27 February 2014 / Accepted: 4 March 2014 / Published: 12 March 2014
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Abstract

Schistosomiasis japonica, transmitted by the intermediate host snail Oncomelania hupensis of the causative agent Schistosoma japonicum, remains a major public-health concern in China, and control of this snail is one of the major approaches used in attempts to interrupt the transmission of this neglected tropical disease. Niclosamide is currently the only commercial molluscicide available for the control of O. hupensis snails in China. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current sensitivity of O. hupensis to niclosamide in China. O. hupensis snails derived from 17 sampling sites from eight schistosomiasis-endemic provinces of China were used for the molluscicidal tests. Active adult snails (10 for each drug concentration), were immersed in solutions of 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.063, 0.032, 0.016 and 0.008 mg/L of 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN) for 24 and 48 h at 25°C, and then the snail mortality was estimated and LC50 values were calculated. All field-derived O. hupensis snails were dead following immersion in 0.5 and 1 mg/L WPN for 24 h, whereas no death was observed after immersion in 0.008 mg/L WPN for 24 h. Immersion in 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.063, 0.032 and 0.016 mg/L WPN for 24 h resulted in 80%–100%, 63.33%–100%, 0%–85%, 0%–50%, 0%–15%, and 0%–5% snail mortalities, respectively. The 24 h WPN LC50 values for the O. hupensis snails derived from the 17 sampling sites in China ranged from 0.0743 to 0.2285 mg/L, and no significant difference was detected by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (p = 0.2). The results indicate that there is no regional variation in the current susceptibility to niclosamide in O. hupensis populations in China. It is suggested that the current sensitivity of niclosamide against O. hupensis remains high and has not changed after more than two decades of repeated, extensive application for snail control in the main endemic areas of China.
Keywords: Oncomelania hupensis; Schistosoma japonicum; niclosamide; molluscicidal activity; China Oncomelania hupensis; Schistosoma japonicum; niclosamide; molluscicidal activity; China
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Dai, J.; Li, Y.; Wang, W.; Xing, Y.; Qu, G.; Liang, Y. Sensitivity of Oncomelania hupensis to Niclosamide: A Nation-Wide Survey in China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 3086-3095.

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