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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(2), 1844-1854; doi:10.3390/ijerph110201844
Communication

Effect of Chlorine Exposure on the Survival and Antibiotic Gene Expression of Multidrug Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Water

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 and 1,*
Received: 12 December 2013; in revised form: 23 January 2014 / Accepted: 28 January 2014 / Published: 7 February 2014
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Abstract: Acinetobacter baumannii is a multidrug resistant pathogen capable of causing a wide spectrum of clinical conditions in humans. Acinetobacter spp. is ubiquitously found in different water sources. Chlorine being the most commonly used disinfectant in water, the study investigated the effect of chlorine on the survival of A. baumannii in water and transcription of genes conferring antibiotic resistance. Eight clinical isolates of A. baumannii, including a fatal meningitis isolate (ATCC 17978) (~108 CFU/mL) were separately exposed to free chlorine concentrations (0.2, 1, 2, 3 and 4 ppm) with a contact time of 30, 60, 90 and 120 second. The surviving pathogen counts at each specified contact time were determined using broth dilution assay. In addition, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of the antibiotic resistance genes (efflux pump genes and those encoding resistance to specific antibiotics) of three selected A. baumannii strains following exposure to chlorine was performed. Results revealed that all eight A. baumannii isolates survived the tested chlorine levels during all exposure times (p > 0.05). Additionally, there was an up-regulation of all or some of the antibiotic resistance genes in A. baumannii, indicating a chlorine-associated induction of antibiotic resistance in the pathogen.
Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii; water; chlorine; disinfection; antibiotic resistance Acinetobacter baumannii; water; chlorine; disinfection; antibiotic resistance
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Karumathil, D.P.; Yin, H.-B.; Kollanoor-Johny, A.; Venkitanarayanan, K. Effect of Chlorine Exposure on the Survival and Antibiotic Gene Expression of Multidrug Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Water. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 1844-1854.

AMA Style

Karumathil DP, Yin H-B, Kollanoor-Johny A, Venkitanarayanan K. Effect of Chlorine Exposure on the Survival and Antibiotic Gene Expression of Multidrug Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Water. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(2):1844-1854.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Karumathil, Deepti P.; Yin, Hsin-Bai; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar. 2014. "Effect of Chlorine Exposure on the Survival and Antibiotic Gene Expression of Multidrug Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Water." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 2: 1844-1854.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert