Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(2), 1855-1872; doi:10.3390/ijerph110201855
Article

Mycotoxins’ Activity at Toxic and Sub-Toxic Concentrations: Differential Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects of Single and Combined Administration of Sterigmatocystin, Ochratoxin A and Citrinin on the Hepatocellular Cancer Cell Line Hep3B

1,* email, 2email, 1email, 3email and 1,3email
Received: 18 November 2013; in revised form: 23 January 2014 / Accepted: 29 January 2014 / Published: 7 February 2014
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Food safety organizations indicate the likelihood of constant human and animal exposure to mycotoxin mixtures as a possible negative public health impact. Risk assessment demonstrates that certain mycotoxins of Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. are toxic and hold a significant genotoxic efficacy at nanomolar concentrations. The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential cytogenetic effects of sterigmatocystin (STER), ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CTN) alone or in combination, at pM to μΜ concentrations, on the human hepatocellular cancer cell line Hep3B. MTT reduction, mitotic divisions, cell cycle delays and sister chromatid exchange rates (SCE) were determined as endpoints of metabolic activity, cytotoxicity, cytostaticity, and genotoxicity, respectively. All mycotoxin treatments induce SCE rates from 1012 M, while their cytotoxic and cytostatic potential varies. In PRI and MI assays, but not at MTT, STER alone or in combination with OTA + CTN appeared cytostatic and cytotoxic, even at 10−12 M, while CTN alone and all other combinations displayed substantial cellular survival inhibition in doses ≥ 10−8 M. Co-administration of STER + OTA or STER + CTN in concentrations ≤ 10−1 M, increased the MI and MTT activity, while it did not affect the PRI. Mycotoxin co-treatments revealed in general similar-to-additive or antagonistic genotoxic and cytotoxic effects. Our results for the first time describe that STER alone or in combination with OTA and/or CTN share a cytotoxic and cytogenetic potential even at picoMolar concentrations on human hepatoma cells in vitro.
Keywords: sterigmatocystin; ochratoxin A; citrinin; metabolic activity; genotoxicity; cytostaticity; cytotoxicity; picoMolar concentrations
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MDPI and ACS Style

Αnninou, N.; Chatzaki, E.; Papachristou, F.; Pitiakoudis, Μ.; Simopoulos, C. Mycotoxins’ Activity at Toxic and Sub-Toxic Concentrations: Differential Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects of Single and Combined Administration of Sterigmatocystin, Ochratoxin A and Citrinin on the Hepatocellular Cancer Cell Line Hep3B. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 1855-1872.

AMA Style

Αnninou N, Chatzaki E, Papachristou F, Pitiakoudis Μ, Simopoulos C. Mycotoxins’ Activity at Toxic and Sub-Toxic Concentrations: Differential Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects of Single and Combined Administration of Sterigmatocystin, Ochratoxin A and Citrinin on the Hepatocellular Cancer Cell Line Hep3B. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(2):1855-1872.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Αnninou, Nikolia; Chatzaki, Ekaterini; Papachristou, Fotini; Pitiakoudis, Μichail; Simopoulos, Constantinos. 2014. "Mycotoxins’ Activity at Toxic and Sub-Toxic Concentrations: Differential Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects of Single and Combined Administration of Sterigmatocystin, Ochratoxin A and Citrinin on the Hepatocellular Cancer Cell Line Hep3B." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 2: 1855-1872.

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