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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(2), 1299-1311; doi:10.3390/ijerph110201299
Article

Genetic Diversity of Rotavirus Strains Circulating in Environmental Water and Bivalve Shellfish in Thailand

* ,
,
 and
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, 420/1 Ratchawithi Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 December 2013 / Revised: 12 January 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2014 / Published: 24 January 2014
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Abstract

Rotavirus is a common cause of acute diarrhea in young children worldwide. This study investigated the prevalence and molecular characterization of rotavirus in environmental water and oyster samples in Thailand. A total of 114 water samples and 110 oyster samples were collected and tested for group A rotavirus using RT-nested PCR. Rotavirus genotype was identified by phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 genetic sequences. Group A rotavirus was detected in 21 water samples (18.4%) and six oyster samples (5.4%). Twenty five rotavirus strains were successfully sequenced and classified into four genotypes; G1, G2, G3, and G9. Rotavirus G1 (three strains), G2 (three strains), and G9 (two strains) demonstrated the genetic sequences similar to human strains (90%–99% nucleotide identity), whereas G3 (17 strains) was closely related to animal strains (84%–98% nucleotide identity). G1 strains belonged to lineages I (sub-lineage c) and II. G2 strains belonged to lineage II. G9 strains belonged to lineages III (sub-lineage b) and IV. G3 strains belonged to lineages I, III (sub-lineage c), and IV with a predominance of lineage I. The present study provides important information on the rotavirus strains circulating in the environment.
Keywords: rotavirus; genotype; water; oyster rotavirus; genotype; water; oyster
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Kittigul, L.; Panjangampatthana, A.; Rupprom, K.; Pombubpa, K. Genetic Diversity of Rotavirus Strains Circulating in Environmental Water and Bivalve Shellfish in Thailand. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 1299-1311.

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