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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(2), 1299-1311; doi:10.3390/ijerph110201299
Article

Genetic Diversity of Rotavirus Strains Circulating in Environmental Water and Bivalve Shellfish in Thailand

* ,
,
 and
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, 420/1 Ratchawithi Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 December 2013 / Revised: 12 January 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2014 / Published: 24 January 2014
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Abstract

Rotavirus is a common cause of acute diarrhea in young children worldwide. This study investigated the prevalence and molecular characterization of rotavirus in environmental water and oyster samples in Thailand. A total of 114 water samples and 110 oyster samples were collected and tested for group A rotavirus using RT-nested PCR. Rotavirus genotype was identified by phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 genetic sequences. Group A rotavirus was detected in 21 water samples (18.4%) and six oyster samples (5.4%). Twenty five rotavirus strains were successfully sequenced and classified into four genotypes; G1, G2, G3, and G9. Rotavirus G1 (three strains), G2 (three strains), and G9 (two strains) demonstrated the genetic sequences similar to human strains (90%–99% nucleotide identity), whereas G3 (17 strains) was closely related to animal strains (84%–98% nucleotide identity). G1 strains belonged to lineages I (sub-lineage c) and II. G2 strains belonged to lineage II. G9 strains belonged to lineages III (sub-lineage b) and IV. G3 strains belonged to lineages I, III (sub-lineage c), and IV with a predominance of lineage I. The present study provides important information on the rotavirus strains circulating in the environment.
Keywords: rotavirus; genotype; water; oyster rotavirus; genotype; water; oyster
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Kittigul, L.; Panjangampatthana, A.; Rupprom, K.; Pombubpa, K. Genetic Diversity of Rotavirus Strains Circulating in Environmental Water and Bivalve Shellfish in Thailand. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 1299-1311.

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