Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Genetic Diversity of Rotavirus Strains Circulating in Environmental Water and Bivalve Shellfish in Thailand
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, 420/1 Ratchawithi Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 December 2013; in revised form: 12 January 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2014 / Published: 24 January 2014
Abstract: Rotavirus is a common cause of acute diarrhea in young children worldwide. This study investigated the prevalence and molecular characterization of rotavirus in environmental water and oyster samples in Thailand. A total of 114 water samples and 110 oyster samples were collected and tested for group A rotavirus using RT-nested PCR. Rotavirus genotype was identified by phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 genetic sequences. Group A rotavirus was detected in 21 water samples (18.4%) and six oyster samples (5.4%). Twenty five rotavirus strains were successfully sequenced and classified into four genotypes; G1, G2, G3, and G9. Rotavirus G1 (three strains), G2 (three strains), and G9 (two strains) demonstrated the genetic sequences similar to human strains (90%–99% nucleotide identity), whereas G3 (17 strains) was closely related to animal strains (84%–98% nucleotide identity). G1 strains belonged to lineages I (sub-lineage c) and II. G2 strains belonged to lineage II. G9 strains belonged to lineages III (sub-lineage b) and IV. G3 strains belonged to lineages I, III (sub-lineage c), and IV with a predominance of lineage I. The present study provides important information on the rotavirus strains circulating in the environment.
Keywords: rotavirus; genotype; water; oyster
Article StatisticsClick here to load and display the download statistics.
Notes: Multiple requests from the same IP address are counted as one view.
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Kittigul, L.; Panjangampatthana, A.; Rupprom, K.; Pombubpa, K. Genetic Diversity of Rotavirus Strains Circulating in Environmental Water and Bivalve Shellfish in Thailand. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 1299-1311.
Kittigul L, Panjangampatthana A, Rupprom K, Pombubpa K. Genetic Diversity of Rotavirus Strains Circulating in Environmental Water and Bivalve Shellfish in Thailand. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(2):1299-1311.
Kittigul, Leera; Panjangampatthana, Apinya; Rupprom, Kitwadee; Pombubpa, Kannika. 2014. "Genetic Diversity of Rotavirus Strains Circulating in Environmental Water and Bivalve Shellfish in Thailand." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 2: 1299-1311.