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Diesel Exhaust Exposure and the Risk of Lung Cancer—A Review of the Epidemiological Evidence
Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Alte Heerstraße 111, Sankt Augustin 53773, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 September 2013; in revised form: 5 December 2013 / Accepted: 12 December 2013 / Published: 27 January 2014
Abstract: To critically evaluate the association between diesel exhaust (DE) exposure and the risk of lung cancer, we conducted a systematic review of published epidemiological evidences. To comprehensively identify original studies on the association between DE exposure and the risk of lung cancer, literature searches were performed in literature databases for the period between 1970 and 2013, including bibliographies and cross-referencing. In total, 42 cohort studies and 32 case-control studies were identified in which the association between DE exposures and lung cancer was examined. In general, previous studies suffer from a series of methodological limitations, including design, exposure assessment methods and statistical analysis used. A lack of objective exposure information appears to be the main problem in interpreting epidemiological evidence. To facilitate the interpretation and comparison of previous studies, a job-exposure matrix (JEM) of DE exposures was created based on around 4,000 historical industrial measurements. The values from the JEM were considered during interpretation and comparison of previous studies. Overall, neither cohort nor case-control studies indicate a clear exposure-response relationship between DE exposure and lung cancer. Epidemiological studies published to date do not allow a valid quantification of the association between DE and lung cancer.
Keywords: diesel exhaust; diesel motor emissions; DME; epidemiology; review; lung cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style
Sun, Y.; Bochmann, F.; Nold, A.; Mattenklott, M. Diesel Exhaust Exposure and the Risk of Lung Cancer—A Review of the Epidemiological Evidence. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 1312-1340.
Sun Y, Bochmann F, Nold A, Mattenklott M. Diesel Exhaust Exposure and the Risk of Lung Cancer—A Review of the Epidemiological Evidence. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(2):1312-1340.
Sun, Yi; Bochmann, Frank; Nold, Annette; Mattenklott, Markus. 2014. "Diesel Exhaust Exposure and the Risk of Lung Cancer—A Review of the Epidemiological Evidence." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 2: 1312-1340.