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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(12), 12915-12926; doi:10.3390/ijerph111212915

Rat Lung Response to PM2.5 Exposure under Different Cold Stresses

1
Institute of Occupational Health and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
2
Lanzhou university Second Hospital, Lanzhou 730030, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 October 2014 / Revised: 3 December 2014 / Accepted: 8 December 2014 / Published: 12 December 2014
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Abstract

Ambient particulate matters and temperature were reported to have additive effects over the respiratory disease hospital admissions and deaths. The purpose of this study is to discuss the interactive pulmonary toxicities of cold stress and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure by estimating inflammation and oxidative stress responses. 48 Wistar male rats, matched by weight and age, were randomly assigned to six groups, which were treated with cold stress alone (0 °C, 10 °C, and 20 °C (Normal control)) and cold stresses plus PM2.5 exposures respectively. Cold stress alone groups were intratracheal instillation of 0.25 mL normal saline, while cold stress plus PM2.5 exposure groups were intratracheal instillation of 8 mg/0.25 mL PM2.5. These procedures were carried out for three times with an interval of 48 hours for each treatment. All rats were sacrificed after 48 hours of the third treatment. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected for analyzing inflammatory cells and cytokines, and lung homogenate MDA was determined for oxidative stress estimation. Results showed higher level of total cell and neutrophil in the BALF of PM2.5 exposed groups (p < 0.05). Negative relationships between cold stress intensity and the level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a), C-reactive protein (CRP) interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in BALF were indicated in PM2.5 exposure groups. Exposure to cold stress alone caused significant increase of inflammatory cytokines and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) and decline of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity only in 0 °C exposure group (p < 0.05). The two-way ANOVA found significant interactive effects between PM2.5 exposure and cold stress in the level of neutrophil, IL-6 and IL-8 and SOD activity (p < 0.05). These data demonstrated that inflammation and oxidative stress involved in the additive effect of PM2.5 exposure and cold stress on pulmonary toxicity, providing explanation for epidemiological studies on the health effect of ambient PM2.5 and cold stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: fine particulate matter (PM2.5); cold stress; inflammatory response; oxidative stress; rat lung fine particulate matter (PM2.5); cold stress; inflammatory response; oxidative stress; rat lung
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Luo, B.; Shi, H.; Wang, L.; Shi, Y.; Wang, C.; Yang, J.; Wan, Y.; Niu, J. Rat Lung Response to PM2.5 Exposure under Different Cold Stresses. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 12915-12926.

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