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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(11), 11065-11080; doi:10.3390/ijerph111111065

Congener Profiles and Source-Wise Phase Partitioning Analysis of PCDDs/Fs and PCBs in Gyeonggi-Do Ambient Air, South Korea

1
Gyeonggi-Do Institute of Health and Environment, Suwon 440-290, Korea
2
Department of Environmental Science, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin 449-791, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 August 2014 / Revised: 14 October 2014 / Accepted: 20 October 2014 / Published: 24 October 2014
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Abstract

The atmospheric concentrations and gas–particle partitioning of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated at two sites (Suwon and Ansan) in Gyeonggi-do, a heavily industrialized area of Korea, during the year 2010. The sum level (Σ17) of PCDDs/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) in the ambient air at Suwon and Ansan ranged from 0.04 to 0.30 pg-TEQ·m3 (geometric mean: 0.09 pg-TEQ·m3) and 0.17 to 0.63 pg-TEQ·m3 (geometric mean: 0.36 pg-TEQ·m3), respectively. Moreover, the geometric mean concentrations of Σ180 PCBs at Suwon and Ansan were 233.6 pg·m3 and 274.2 pg·m3, respectively, and di-chlorinated biphenyls and tri-chlorinated biphenyls were the predominant homologs. Among the PCB congeners, 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB-11) was the dominant species at both sites during all sampling periods, comprising up to 15.1% of Σ180 PCBs at Ansan and 24.6% at Suwon. We evaluated their gas-to-particle equilibriums by conducting regression between the particle–gas partition coefficient Kp (m3·ug−1) and the corresponding subcooled liquid vapor pressure (PL°). The slope (m) values for log–log plots of Kp vs. PL° were steeper in industrial areas owing to local source proximity. Moreover, owing to enhanced emissions from combustion-related sources at low temperatures, PCDD/Fs exhibited the largest deviation from the regression line of the particle–gas partition coefficient. Incinerators were found to be the primary emission source of atmospheric PCDDs/Fs, whereas re-evaporation from pre-existing environmental loads (e.g., storage areas or spilled soil and water bodies) was the dominant source for PCBs. View Full-Text
Keywords: PCDDs/Fs; PCBs; congener profiles; gas-particle partitioning; Korea PCDDs/Fs; PCBs; congener profiles; gas-particle partitioning; Korea
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Heo, J.; Kim, D.; Lee, G. Congener Profiles and Source-Wise Phase Partitioning Analysis of PCDDs/Fs and PCBs in Gyeonggi-Do Ambient Air, South Korea. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 11065-11080.

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