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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 10770-10789; doi:10.3390/ijerph111010770

Animal Leptospirosis in Latin America and the Caribbean Countries: Reported Outbreaks and Literature Review (2002–2014)

1
The National Reference Laboratory of World Organization for Animal Health, National Service of Agrifood Health and Quality (SENASA), Buenos Aires, CP C1063ACD, Argentina
2
Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)/WHO, 525, 23rd Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20037, USA
3
Oswaldo Cruz Institute/FIOCRUZ, WHO Collaborating Centre for Leptospirosis, Rio de Janeiro, 21040-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 May 2014 / Revised: 15 September 2014 / Accepted: 30 September 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leptospirosis in the Animal—Human-Ecosystem Interface)
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Abstract

Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease whose transmission is linked through multiple factors in the animal-human-ecosystem interface. The data on leptospirosis reported to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) for Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) countries/sovereign territories from 2005–2011 were mapped, showing a wide distribution of outbreaks in the region. Tropical terrestrial biomes are the predominate ecosystems showing reports of outbreaks. Climatic and ecological factors were relevant to the occurrence of epidemic outbreaks. The available scientific information from 2002–2014 was summarized to obtain a general overview and identify key issues related to the One Health approach. The primary serological test used for diagnosis and for conducting surveys was the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Reports regarding the isolation and typing of leptospires were scattered and limited to data from a few countries, but their results revealed considerable biodiversity at the species and serovar levels. A total of six out of 11 currently named pathogenic species were found in the region. There was also high diversity of animal species showing evidence of infection by leptospires, including rodents, pets, livestock and wild animals. Prevention and control measures for leptospirosis should consider issues of animal and human health in the context of ecosystems, the territorial land borders of countries and trade. View Full-Text
Keywords: Leptospira; leptospirosis; rodents; dogs; livestock; wild animals; Eco Health; One Health Leptospira; leptospirosis; rodents; dogs; livestock; wild animals; Eco Health; One Health
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Petrakovsky, J.; Bianchi, A.; Fisun, H.; Nájera-Aguilar, P.; Pereira, M.M. Animal Leptospirosis in Latin America and the Caribbean Countries: Reported Outbreaks and Literature Review (2002–2014). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 10770-10789.

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