Next Article in Journal
Measuring Quality of Mental Health Care: An International Comparison
Next Article in Special Issue
Animal Leptospirosis in Latin America and the Caribbean Countries: Reported Outbreaks and Literature Review (2002–2014)
Previous Article in Journal
Correction: Soppa, V.J., et al. Respiratory Effects of Fine and Ultrafine Particles from Indoor Sources—A Randomized Sham-Controlled Exposure Study of Healthy Volunteers Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 6871–6889
Previous Article in Special Issue
Human Leptospirosis Trends: Northeast Thailand, 2001–2012
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 10366-10383; doi:10.3390/ijerph111010366

Geographical Scale Effects on the Analysis of Leptospirosis Determinants

1
FIOCRUZ, ICICT/LIS, Núcleo de Geoprocessamento, Avenida Brasil, 4365 Pavilhão Haity Moussatché, sala 231, Rio de Janeiro 21045-900, Brazil
2
FIOCRUZ, ICICT/LIS, Núcleo de Geoprocessamento, Avenida Brasil, 4365 Pavilhão Hai ty Moussatché, sala 231- Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro 21045-900, Brazil
3
FIOCRUZ, ENSP/DENSP, Rua Leopoldo Bulhões, 1480 ENSP, sala 607—Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, ENSP 21041-210, Brazil
4
FIOCRUZ, ENSP/DSSA, Rua Leopoldo Bulhões, 1480 ENSP, sala 521—Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro 21041-210, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 May 2014 / Revised: 3 September 2014 / Accepted: 10 September 2014 / Published: 10 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leptospirosis in the Animal—Human-Ecosystem Interface)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [910 KB, uploaded 10 October 2014]   |  

Abstract

Leptospirosis displays a great diversity of routes of exposure, reservoirs, etiologic agents, and clinical symptoms. It occurs almost worldwide but its pattern of transmission varies depending where it happens. Climate change may increase the number of cases, especially in developing countries, like Brazil. Spatial analysis studies of leptospirosis have highlighted the importance of socioeconomic and environmental context. Hence, the choice of the geographical scale and unit of analysis used in the studies is pivotal, because it restricts the indicators available for the analysis and may bias the results. In this study, we evaluated which environmental and socioeconomic factors, typically used to characterize the risks of leptospirosis transmission, are more relevant at different geographical scales (i.e., regional, municipal, and local). Geographic Information Systems were used for data analysis. Correlations between leptospirosis incidence and several socioeconomic and environmental indicators were calculated at different geographical scales. At the regional scale, the strongest correlations were observed between leptospirosis incidence and the amount of people living in slums, or the percent of the area densely urbanized. At the municipal scale, there were no significant correlations. At the local level, the percent of the area prone to flooding best correlated with leptospirosis incidence. View Full-Text
Keywords: leptospirosis; geographical scale; unit of analysis; socioeconomic indicators; environmental indicators leptospirosis; geographical scale; unit of analysis; socioeconomic indicators; environmental indicators
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gracie, R.; Barcellos, C.; Magalhães, M.; Souza-Santos, R.; Barrocas, P.R.G. Geographical Scale Effects on the Analysis of Leptospirosis Determinants. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 10366-10383.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top