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Impact of Chlorine Dioxide Gas Sterilization on Nosocomial Organism Viability in a Hospital Room
Department of Environmental, Agricultural & Occupational Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Public Health, Omaha, NE 68198, USA
Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Medicine, Omaha, NE 68198, USA
Section of Infectious Diseases, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Medicine, Omaha, NE 68198, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 April 2013; in revised form: 3 June 2013 / Accepted: 10 June 2013 / Published: 21 June 2013
Abstract: To evaluate the ability of ClO2 to decontaminate pathogens known to cause healthcare-associated infections in a hospital room strains of Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Staphylococcus aureus were spot placed in duplicate pairs at 10 sites throughout a hospital room and then exposed to ClO2 gas. Organisms were collected and evaluated for reduction in colony forming units following gas exposure. Six sterilization cycles with varied gas concentrations, exposure limits, and relative humidity levels were conducted. Reductions in viable organisms achieved ranged from 7 to 10-log reductions. Two sterilization cycles failed to produce complete inactivation of organisms placed in a bathroom with the door closed. Reductions of organisms in the bathroom ranged from 6-log to 10-log reductions. Gas leakage between hospital floors did not occur; however, some minor gas leakage from the door of hospital room was measured which was subsequently sealed to prevent further leakage. Novel technologies for disinfection of hospital rooms require validation and safety testing in clinical environments. Gaseous ClO2 is effective for sterilizing environmental contamination in a hospital room. Concentrations of ClO2 up to 385 ppm were safely maintained in a hospital room with enhanced environmental controls.
Keywords: chlorine dioxide; sterilization; gas; nosocomial; hospital
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MDPI and ACS Style
Lowe, J.J.; Gibbs, S.G.; Iwen, P.C.; Smith, P.W.; Hewlett, A.L. Impact of Chlorine Dioxide Gas Sterilization on Nosocomial Organism Viability in a Hospital Room. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 2596-2605.
Lowe JJ, Gibbs SG, Iwen PC, Smith PW, Hewlett AL. Impact of Chlorine Dioxide Gas Sterilization on Nosocomial Organism Viability in a Hospital Room. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(6):2596-2605.
Lowe, John J.; Gibbs, Shawn G.; Iwen, Peter C.; Smith, Philip W.; Hewlett, Angela L. 2013. "Impact of Chlorine Dioxide Gas Sterilization on Nosocomial Organism Viability in a Hospital Room." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 6: 2596-2605.