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Swine Dysentery: Aetiology, Pathogenicity, Determinants of Transmission and the Fight against the Disease
Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology Unit, University of León, León 24071, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 March 2013; in revised form: 22 April 2013 / Accepted: 23 April 2013 / Published: 10 May 2013
Abstract: Swine Dysentery (SD) is a severe mucohaemorhagic enteric disease of pigs caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, which has a large impact on pig production and causes important losses due to mortality and sub-optimal performance. Although B. hyodysenteriae has been traditionally considered a pathogen mainly transmitted by direct contact, through the introduction of subclinically infected animals into a previously uninfected herd, recent findings position B. hyodysenteriae as a potential threat for indirect transmission between farms. This article summarizes the knowledge available on the etiological agent of SD and its virulence traits, and reviews the determinants of SD transmission. The between-herds and within-herd transmission routes are addressed. The factors affecting disease transmission are thoroughly discussed, i.e., environmental survival of the pathogen, husbandry factors (production system, production stage, farm management), role of vectors, diet influence and interaction of the microorganism with gut microbiota. Finally, prophylactic and therapeutic approaches to fight against the disease are briefly described.
Keywords: swine dysentery; Brachyspira hyodysenteriae; transmission; control
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Alvarez-Ordóez, A.; Martínez-Lobo, F.J.; Arguello, H.; Carvajal, A.; Rubio, P. Swine Dysentery: Aetiology, Pathogenicity, Determinants of Transmission and the Fight against the Disease. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 1927-1947.
Alvarez-Ordóez A, Martínez-Lobo FJ, Arguello H, Carvajal A, Rubio P. Swine Dysentery: Aetiology, Pathogenicity, Determinants of Transmission and the Fight against the Disease. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(5):1927-1947.
Alvarez-Ordóez, Avelino; Martínez-Lobo, Francisco J.; Arguello, Héctor; Carvajal, Ana; Rubio, Pedro. 2013. "Swine Dysentery: Aetiology, Pathogenicity, Determinants of Transmission and the Fight against the Disease." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 5: 1927-1947.