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Correlates of Unsupervised Bathing of Infants: A Cross-Sectional Study
Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC-University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam 3000 CA, The Netherlands
Consumer Safety Institute, P.O. Box 75169, Amsterdam 1070 AD, The Netherlands
Dutch Association for Youth Health Care Physicians, Churchillaan 11, Utrecht 3527 GV, The Netherlands
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 January 2013; in revised form: 25 February 2013 / Accepted: 25 February 2013 / Published: 4 March 2013
Abstract: Drowning represents the third leading cause of fatal unintentional injury in infants (0–1 years). The aim of this study is to investigate correlates of unsupervised bathing. This cross-sectional study included 1,410 parents with an infant. Parents completed a questionnaire regarding supervision during bathing, socio-demographic factors, and Protection Motivation Theory-constructs. To determine correlates of parents who leave their infant unsupervised, logistic regression analyses were performed. Of the parents, 6.2% left their child unsupervised in the bathtub. Parents with older children (OR 1.24; 95%CI 1.00–1.54) were more likely to leave their child unsupervised in the bathtub. First-time parents (OR 0.59; 95%CI 0.36–0.97) and non-Western migrant fathers (OR 0.18; 95%CI 0.05–0.63) were less likely to leave their child unsupervised in the bathtub. Furthermore, parents who perceived higher self-efficacy (OR 0.57; 95%CI 0.47–0.69), higher response efficacy (OR 0.34; 95%CI 0.24–0.48), and higher severity (OR 0.74; 95%CI 0.58–0.93) were less likely to leave their child unsupervised. Since young children are at great risk of drowning if supervision is absent, effective strategies for drowning prevention should be developed and evaluated. In the meantime, health care professionals should inform parents with regard to the importance of supervision during bathing.
Keywords: children; supervision; bathing; drowning; safety
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van Beelen, M.E.J.; van Beeck, E.F.; den Hertog, P.; Beirens, T.M.J.; Raat, H. Correlates of Unsupervised Bathing of Infants: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 856-866.
van Beelen MEJ, van Beeck EF, den Hertog P, Beirens TMJ, Raat H. Correlates of Unsupervised Bathing of Infants: A Cross-Sectional Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(3):856-866.
van Beelen, Mirjam E.J.; van Beeck, Eduard F.; den Hertog, Paul; Beirens, Tinneke M.J.; Raat, Hein. 2013. "Correlates of Unsupervised Bathing of Infants: A Cross-Sectional Study." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 3: 856-866.