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Disseminating Childhood Home Injury Risk Reduction Information in Pakistan: Results from a Community-Based Pilot Study
International Injury Research Unit (IIRU), Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Department of Emergency Medicine, Aga Khan University, Karachi 74800, Pakistan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 January 2013; in revised form: 7 March 2013 / Accepted: 7 March 2013 / Published: 15 March 2013
Abstract: Background: Most childhood unintentional injuries occur in the home; however, very little home injury prevention information is tailored to developing countries. Utilizing our previously developed information dissemination tools and a hazard assessment checklist tailored to a low-income neighborhood in Pakistan, we pilot tested and compared the effectiveness of two dissemination tools. Methods: Two low-income neighborhoods were mapped, identifying families with a child aged between 12 and 59 months. In June and July 2010, all enrolled households underwent a home hazard assessment at the same time hazard reduction education was being given using an in-home tutorial or a pamphlet. A follow up assessment was conducted 4–5 months later. Results: 503 households were enrolled; 256 received a tutorial and 247 a pamphlet. The two groups differed significantly (p < 0.01) in level of maternal education and relationship of the child to the primary caregiver. However, when controlling for these variables, those receiving an in-home tutorial had a higher odds of hazard reduction than the pamphlet group for uncovered vats of water (OR 2.14, 95% CI: 1.28, 3.58), an open fire within reach of the child (OR 3.55, 95% CI: 1.80, 7.00), and inappropriately labeled cooking fuel containers (OR 1.86, 95% CI: 1.07, 3.25). Conclusions: This pilot project demonstrates the potential utility of using home-visit tutorials to decrease home hazards in a low-income neighborhood in Pakistan. A longer-term randomized study is needed to assess actual effectiveness of the use of allied health workers for home-based injury education and whether this results in decreased home injuries.
Keywords: unintentional injuries; home injuries; children; accidents; trauma; home visits; Pakistan
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Chandran, A.; Khan, U.R.; Zia, N.; Feroze, A.; de Ramirez, S.S.; Huang, C.-M.; Razzak, J.A.; Hyder, A.A. Disseminating Childhood Home Injury Risk Reduction Information in Pakistan: Results from a Community-Based Pilot Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 1113-1124.
Chandran A, Khan UR, Zia N, Feroze A, de Ramirez SS, Huang C-M, Razzak JA, Hyder AA. Disseminating Childhood Home Injury Risk Reduction Information in Pakistan: Results from a Community-Based Pilot Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(3):1113-1124.
Chandran, Aruna; Khan, Uzma R.; Zia, Nukhba; Feroze, Asher; de Ramirez, Sarah S.; Huang, Cheng-Ming; Razzak, Junaid A.; Hyder, Adnan A. 2013. "Disseminating Childhood Home Injury Risk Reduction Information in Pakistan: Results from a Community-Based Pilot Study." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 3: 1113-1124.