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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(12), 6366-6379; doi:10.3390/ijerph10126366
Article

Vector Contact Rates on Eastern Bluebird Nestlings Do Not Indicate West Nile Virus Transmission in Henrico County, Virginia, USA

1,2,* , 2,†
, 3,†
, 4,†
 and 2
Received: 22 September 2013; in revised form: 7 November 2013 / Accepted: 11 November 2013 / Published: 27 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of West Nile Virus)
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Abstract: Sensitive indicators of spatial and temporal variation in vector-host contact rates are critical to understanding the transmission and eventual prevention of arboviruses such as West Nile virus (WNV). Monitoring vector contact rates on particularly susceptible and perhaps more exposed avian nestlings may provide an advanced indication of local WNV amplification. To test this hypothesis we monitored WNV infection and vector contact rates among nestlings occupying nest boxes (primarily Eastern bluebirds; Sialia sialis, Turdidae) across Henrico County, Virginia, USA, from May to August 2012. Observed host-seeking rates were temporally variable and associated with absolute vector and host abundances. Despite substantial effort to monitor WNV among nestlings and mosquitoes, we did not detect the presence of WNV in these populations. Generally low vector-nestling host contact rates combined with the negative WNV infection data suggest that monitoring transmission parameters among nestling Eastern bluebirds in Henrico County, Virginia, USA may not be a sensitive indicator of WNV activity.
Keywords: host-seeking rate; nestling; nest mosquito trap; arbovirus; West Nile virus host-seeking rate; nestling; nest mosquito trap; arbovirus; West Nile virus
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Caillouët, K.A.; Robertson, C.W.; Wheeler, D.C.; Komar, N.; Bulluck, L.P. Vector Contact Rates on Eastern Bluebird Nestlings Do Not Indicate West Nile Virus Transmission in Henrico County, Virginia, USA. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 6366-6379.

AMA Style

Caillouët KA, Robertson CW, Wheeler DC, Komar N, Bulluck LP. Vector Contact Rates on Eastern Bluebird Nestlings Do Not Indicate West Nile Virus Transmission in Henrico County, Virginia, USA. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(12):6366-6379.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Caillouët, Kevin A.; Robertson, Charles W.; Wheeler, David C.; Komar, Nicholas; Bulluck, Lesley P. 2013. "Vector Contact Rates on Eastern Bluebird Nestlings Do Not Indicate West Nile Virus Transmission in Henrico County, Virginia, USA." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 12: 6366-6379.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert