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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(12), 6534-6610; doi:10.3390/ijerph10126534
Review

West Nile Virus State of the Art Report of MALWEST Project

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Received: 30 July 2013; in revised form: 11 November 2013 / Accepted: 12 November 2013 / Published: 2 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of West Nile Virus)
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Abstract: During the last three years Greece is experiencing the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) epidemics. Within this framework, an integrated surveillance and control programme (MALWEST project) with thirteen associate partners was launched aiming to investigate the disease and suggest appropriate interventions. One out of seven work packages of the project is dedicated to the State of the Art report for WNV. Three expert working groups on humans, animals and mosquitoes were established. Medical databases (PubMed, Scopus) were searched together with websites: e.g., WHO, CDC, ECDC. In total, 1,092 relevant articles were initially identified and 258 of them were finally included as references regarding the current knowledge about WNV, along with 36 additional sources (conference papers, reports, book chapters). The review is divided in three sections according to the fields of interest: (1) WNV in humans (epidemiology, molecular characteristics, transmission, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, surveillance); (2) WNV in animals (epidemiological and transmission characteristics concerning birds, horses, reptiles and other animal species) and (3) WNV in mosquitoes (control, surveillance). Finally, some examples of integrated surveillance programmes are presented. The introduction and establishment of the disease in Greece and other European countries further emphasizes the need for thorough research and broadening of our knowledge on this viral pathogen.
Keywords: West Nile virus; Greece; surveillance; control; epidemiology; diagnosis; mosquito; bird; risk assessment; GIS West Nile virus; Greece; surveillance; control; epidemiology; diagnosis; mosquito; bird; risk assessment; GIS
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Marka, A.; Diamantidis, A.; Papa, A.; Valiakos, G.; Chaintoutis, S.C.; Doukas, D.; Tserkezou, P.; Giannakopoulos, A.; Papaspyropoulos, K.; Patsoula, E.; Badieritakis, E.; Baka, A.; Tseroni, M.; Pervanidou, D.; Papadopoulos, N.T.; Koliopoulos, G.; Tontis, D.; Dovas, C.I.; Billinis, C.; Tsakris, A.; Kremastinou, J.; Hadjichristodoulou, C.; project, F.M. West Nile Virus State of the Art Report of MALWEST Project. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 6534-6610.

AMA Style

Marka A, Diamantidis A, Papa A, Valiakos G, Chaintoutis SC, Doukas D, Tserkezou P, Giannakopoulos A, Papaspyropoulos K, Patsoula E, Badieritakis E, Baka A, Tseroni M, Pervanidou D, Papadopoulos NT, Koliopoulos G, Tontis D, Dovas CI, Billinis C, Tsakris A, Kremastinou J, Hadjichristodoulou C, project FM. West Nile Virus State of the Art Report of MALWEST Project. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(12):6534-6610.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marka, Andriani; Diamantidis, Alexandros; Papa, Anna; Valiakos, George; Chaintoutis, Serafeim C.; Doukas, Dimitrios; Tserkezou, Persefoni; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Papaspyropoulos, Konstantinos; Patsoula, Eleni; Badieritakis, Evangelos; Baka, Agoritsa; Tseroni, Maria; Pervanidou, Danai; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.; Koliopoulos, George; Tontis, Dimitrios; Dovas, Chrysostomos I.; Billinis, Charalambos; Tsakris, Athanassios; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; project, for M. 2013. "West Nile Virus State of the Art Report of MALWEST Project." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 12: 6534-6610.



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