Next Article in Journal
How Do Grass Species, Season and Ensiling Influence Mycotoxin Content in Forage?
Next Article in Special Issue
The Changing Epidemiology of Kunjin Virus in Australia
Previous Article in Journal
Lithium in Tap Water and Suicide Mortality in Japan
Previous Article in Special Issue
Spatio-Temporal Epidemiology of Human West Nile Virus Disease in South Dakota
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(11), 6049-6083; doi:10.3390/ijerph10116049
Review

Flaviviruses in Europe: Complex Circulation Patterns and Their Consequences for the Diagnosis and Control of West Nile Disease

1
, 2
, 3,4
, 5
, 6,7
, 8
, 1
, 4
 and 1,*
Received: 19 August 2013; in revised form: 24 October 2013 / Accepted: 29 October 2013 / Published: 12 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of West Nile Virus)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1478 KB, updated 19 June 2014; original version uploaded 19 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: In Europe, many flaviviruses are endemic (West Nile, Usutu, tick-borne encephalitis viruses) or occasionally imported (dengue, yellow fever viruses). Due to the temporal and geographical co-circulation of flaviviruses in Europe, flavivirus differentiation by diagnostic tests is crucial in the adaptation of surveillance and control efforts. Serological diagnosis of flavivirus infections is complicated by the antigenic similarities among the Flavivirus genus. Indeed, most flavivirus antibodies are directed against the highly immunogenic envelope protein, which contains both flavivirus cross-reactive and virus-specific epitopes. Serological assay results should thus be interpreted with care and confirmed by comparative neutralization tests using a panel of viruses known to circulate in Europe. However, antibody cross-reactivity could be advantageous in efforts to control emerging flaviviruses because it ensures partial cross-protection. In contrast, it might also facilitate subsequent diseases, through a phenomenon called antibody-dependent enhancement mainly described for dengue virus infections. Here, we review the serological methods commonly used in WNV diagnosis and surveillance in Europe. By examining past and current epidemiological situations in different European countries, we present the challenges involved in interpreting flavivirus serological tests and setting up appropriate surveillance programs; we also address the consequences of flavivirus circulation and vaccination for host immunity.
Keywords: flaviviruses; West Nile virus; antibodies; cross-reactivity; diagnosis; cross-protection; ADE; natural infection; vaccination; vector-borne diseases flaviviruses; West Nile virus; antibodies; cross-reactivity; diagnosis; cross-protection; ADE; natural infection; vaccination; vector-borne diseases
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Beck, C.; Jimenez-Clavero, M.A.; Leblond, A.; Durand, B.; Nowotny, N.; Leparc-Goffart, I.; Zientara, S.; Jourdain, E.; Lecollinet, S. Flaviviruses in Europe: Complex Circulation Patterns and Their Consequences for the Diagnosis and Control of West Nile Disease. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 6049-6083.

AMA Style

Beck C, Jimenez-Clavero MA, Leblond A, Durand B, Nowotny N, Leparc-Goffart I, Zientara S, Jourdain E, Lecollinet S. Flaviviruses in Europe: Complex Circulation Patterns and Their Consequences for the Diagnosis and Control of West Nile Disease. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(11):6049-6083.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Beck, Cécile; Jimenez-Clavero, Miguel A.; Leblond, Agnès; Durand, Benoît; Nowotny, Norbert; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Zientara, Stéphan; Jourdain, Elsa; Lecollinet, Sylvie. 2013. "Flaviviruses in Europe: Complex Circulation Patterns and Their Consequences for the Diagnosis and Control of West Nile Disease." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 11: 6049-6083.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert