Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(10), 5209-5220; doi:10.3390/ijerph10105209
Article

The Kinetic Signature of Toxicity of Four Heavy Metals and Their Mixtures on MCF7 Breast Cancer Cell Line

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Received: 11 October 2012; in revised form: 30 November 2012 / Accepted: 4 December 2012 / Published: 21 October 2013
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: This study evaluated the kinetic signature of toxicity of four heavy metals known to cause severe health and environmental issues—cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) lead (Pb) arsenic (As)—and the mixture of all four metals (Mix) on MCF7 cancer cells, in the presence and absence of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The study was carried out using real time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES). RT-CES monitors in real time the electrical impedance changes at the electrode/culture medium interface due to the number of adhered cells, which is used as an index of cell viability. Cells were seeded for 24 h before exposure to the metals and their mixtures. The results showed that in the presence and absence of cellular glutathione, arsenic was the most cytotoxic of all five treatments, inducing cell death after 5 h of exposure. Lead was the least cytotoxic in both scenarios. In the presence of cellular GSH, the cytotoxic trend was As > Cd > MIX > Hg > Pb, while in the absence of GSH, the cytotoxic trend was As > Hg > MIX > Cd > Pb. The findings from this study indicate the significance of glutathione-mediated toxicity of the metals examined—particularly for mercury—and may be clinically relevant for disorders such as autism spectrum disorder where decreased glutathione-based detoxification capacity is associated with increased mercury intoxication.
Keywords: heavy metals; real time electronic cell sensing; glutathione; L-buthionine sulphoximine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Egiebor, E.; Tulu, A.; Abou-Zeid, N.; Aighewi, I.T.; Ishaque, A. The Kinetic Signature of Toxicity of Four Heavy Metals and Their Mixtures on MCF7 Breast Cancer Cell Line. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 5209-5220.

AMA Style

Egiebor E, Tulu A, Abou-Zeid N, Aighewi IT, Ishaque A. The Kinetic Signature of Toxicity of Four Heavy Metals and Their Mixtures on MCF7 Breast Cancer Cell Line. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(10):5209-5220.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Egiebor, Egbe; Tulu, Adam; Abou-Zeid, Nadia; Aighewi, Isoken T.; Ishaque, Ali. 2013. "The Kinetic Signature of Toxicity of Four Heavy Metals and Their Mixtures on MCF7 Breast Cancer Cell Line." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 10: 5209-5220.

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