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Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles, Their Characterization, Application and Antibacterial Activity†
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Alabama A&M University, P.O. Box 1672, Normal, AL 35762, USA
Department of Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics, Alabama A&M University, 4900 Meridian Street N., Normal, AL 35762, USA
† This paper is an extended version of paper presented at the Ninth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research, Jackson, MS, USA; 16–19 September 2012.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 November 2012; in revised form: 20 December 2012 / Accepted: 25 December 2012 / Published: 21 October 2013
Abstract: Our research focused on the production, characterization and application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which can be utilized in biomedical research and environmental cleaning applications. We used an environmentally friendly extracellular biosynthetic technique for the production of the AgNPs. The reducing agents used to produce the nanoparticles were from aqueous extracts made from the leaves of various plants. Synthesis of colloidal AgNPs was monitored by UV-Visible spectroscopy. The UV-Visible spectrum showed a peak between 417 and 425 nm corresponding to the Plasmon absorbance of the AgNPs. The characterization of the AgNPs such as their size and shape was performed by Atom Force Microscopy (AFM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques which indicated a size range of 3 to 15 nm. The anti-bacterial activity of AgNPs was investigated at concentrations between 2 and 15 ppm for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus and Kocuria rhizophila, Bacillus thuringiensis (Gram-positive organisms); Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhimurium (Gram-negative organisms) were exposed to AgNPs using Bioscreen C. The results indicated that AgNPs at a concentration of 2 and 4 ppm, inhibited bacterial growth. Preliminary evaluation of cytotoxicity of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles was accomplished using the InQ™ Cell Research System instrument with HEK 293 cells. This investigation demonstrated that silver nanoparticles with a concentration of 2 ppm and 4 ppm were not toxic for human healthy cells, but inhibit bacterial growth.
Keywords: biosynthesis; silver nanoparticles; plant extracts; cytotoxicity bacteria; antibacterial activity
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Okafor, F.; Janen, A.; Kukhtareva, T.; Edwards, V.; Curley, M. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles, Their Characterization, Application and Antibacterial Activity. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 5221-5238.
Okafor F, Janen A, Kukhtareva T, Edwards V, Curley M. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles, Their Characterization, Application and Antibacterial Activity. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(10):5221-5238.
Okafor, Florence; Janen, Afef; Kukhtareva, Tatiana; Edwards, Vernessa; Curley, Michael. 2013. "Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles, Their Characterization, Application and Antibacterial Activity." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 10: 5221-5238.