Next Article in Journal
Longitudinal Influences of Neighbourhood Built and Social Environment on Children’s Weight Status
Next Article in Special Issue
Psychosocial Job Strain and Sleep Quality Interaction Leading to Insufficient Recovery
Previous Article in Journal
The Natural History of IgE-Mediated Food Allergy: Can Skin Prick Tests and Serum-Specific IgE Predict the Resolution of Food Allergy?
Previous Article in Special Issue
Stress, Health and Well-Being: The Mediating Role of Employee and Organizational Commitment
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(10), 5062-5082; doi:10.3390/ijerph10105062

Psychological Distress, Related Work Attendance, and Productivity Loss in Small-to-Medium Enterprise Owner/Managers

Menzies Research Institute Tasmania, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 23, Hobart TAS 7000, Australia
School of Management, University of Tasmania, Locked Bag 1316, Launceston TAS 7250, Australia
School of Psychology, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 30, Hobart TAS 7001, Australia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 July 2013 / Revised: 4 September 2013 / Accepted: 1 October 2013 / Published: 15 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Job Stress and Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [358 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |  


Owner/managers of small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) are an under-researched population in terms of psychological distress and the associated health and economic consequences. Using baseline data from the evaluation of the Business in Mind program, a mental health promotion intervention amongst SME owner/managers, this study investigated: (i) prevalence of high/very high psychological distress, past-month sickness absenteeism and presenteeism days in SME owner/managers; (ii) associated, self-reported lost productivity; and (iii) associations between work, non-work and business-specific factors and work attendance behaviours. In our sample of 217 SME owner/managers 36.8% reported high/very high psychological distress. Of this group 38.7% reported past-month absenteeism, 82.5% reported past-month presenteeism, and those reporting presenteeism were 50% less productive as than usual. Negative binomial regression was used to demonstrate the independent effects of socio-demographic, work-related wellbeing and health-related factors, as well as various individual and business characteristics on continuous measures of absenteeism and presenteeism days. Health-related factors (self-rated health and treatment) were the strongest correlates of higher presenteeism days (p < 0.05). Work-related wellbeing factors (job tension and job satisfaction) were the strongest correlates of higher absenteeism days (p < 0.05). Higher educational attainment, treatment and neuroticism were also correlated with more absenteeism days. SME-specific information about the occurrence of psychological distress, work attendance behaviour, and the variables that influence these decisions, are needed for the development of guidelines for managing psychological distress within this sector. View Full-Text
Keywords: depression; workplace; absenteeism; presenteeism; productivity; SMEs depression; workplace; absenteeism; presenteeism; productivity; SMEs

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Cocker, F.; Martin, A.; Scott, J.; Venn, A.; Sanderson, K. Psychological Distress, Related Work Attendance, and Productivity Loss in Small-to-Medium Enterprise Owner/Managers. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 5062-5082.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top