Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2004, 1(1), 35-38; doi:10.3390/ijerph2004010035
Article

Toxicity of a Mixture of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid and Mono-soduim Methanearsonate to the Red Swamp Crawfish, Procambarus clarkii

Received: 10 January 2004; Accepted: 20 January 2004 / Published: 29 February 2004
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and monosodium methanearsonate are often sold in commercial herbicide mixtures. Toxicity studies have been performed for each herbicide individually, but there is a dearth of information concerning the toxicity of these herbicides in a mixture. The following study examined the toxicity of a mixture of these two herbicides in the red swamp crawfish, Procambarus clarkii. 96-hour acute toxicity assays were performed to determine whether surfactant significantly altered the toxicity of these herbicides individually or in combination. Marking’s additive index was calculated to identify the interactions of the herbicide mixture. Surfactant was observed to significantly increase the toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and the toxicity of the herbicide mixture. The herbicide mixture alone displayed half the toxicity of the individual herbicides, but the mixture with surfactant was twice as toxic as the individual herbicides. The synergistic action of surfactant may be attributed to increased pesticide absorption across biological membranes. 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and surfactant may also compromise gill function, increasing the sensitivity of the crawfish to herbicide toxicity. The antagonistic effects of the herbicide mixture in the absence of surfactant may be caused by competition of both herbicides for the same sites of activity.
Keywords: crawfish; 2; 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; monosodium methanearsonate; herbicide mixture; acute toxicity; Marking’s Additive Index
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MDPI and ACS Style

Green, R.M.; Abdelghani, A.A. Toxicity of a Mixture of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid and Mono-soduim Methanearsonate to the Red Swamp Crawfish, Procambarus clarkii. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2004, 1, 35-38.

AMA Style

Green RM, Abdelghani AA. Toxicity of a Mixture of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid and Mono-soduim Methanearsonate to the Red Swamp Crawfish, Procambarus clarkii. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2004; 1(1):35-38.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Green, Rosalind M.; Abdelghani, Assaf A. 2004. "Toxicity of a Mixture of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid and Mono-soduim Methanearsonate to the Red Swamp Crawfish, Procambarus clarkii." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 1, no. 1: 35-38.

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