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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 1, Issue 1 (March 2004), Pages 1-73

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Environmental Research and Public Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2004, 1(1), 1-2; doi:10.3390/ijerph2004010001
Published: 30 April 2004
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (82 KB)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Coumestrol, Bisphenol-A, DDT, and TCDD Modulation of Interleukin-2 Expression in Activated CD+4 Jurkat T Cells
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2004, 1(1), 3-11; doi:10.3390/ijerph2004010003
Received: 20 September 2003 / Accepted: 20 November 2003 / Published: 29 February 2004
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (435 KB)
Abstract
Endogenous estrogens are known to modulate several components of immune response, including interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. IL-2 is a cytokine that plays an important role in adaptive immune responses. These responses may be modulated by xenoestrogens such as coumestrol, bisphenol A (BPA), DDT, [...] Read more.
Endogenous estrogens are known to modulate several components of immune response, including interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. IL-2 is a cytokine that plays an important role in adaptive immune responses. These responses may be modulated by xenoestrogens such as coumestrol, bisphenol A (BPA), DDT, and TCDD. In this research, we examined the effects and potential mechanisms of action of these estrogenic compounds on IL-2 production in activated CD4+ Jurkat T cells. IL-2 production was analyzed by ELISA and Western Blot. At the transcriptional level, protein expression was examined by RT-PCR. Coumestrol, DDT and TCDD (but not BPA) significantly suppressed IL-2 production in activated CD4+ Jurkat T cells, at the transcriptional and translational levels. The transcriptional suppression of IL-2 was associated with decreased protein levels of NF-κβ, an important IL-2 positive transcription factor, without affecting the expression of Iκ−Βα protein expression, an important inhibitor of NF-κβ nuclear translocation. Although the direct mechanisms of xenoestrogens modulation of the immune system remain to be elucidated, coumestrol-, DDT- and TCDD-induced suppression of IL-2 may have ramifications for our understanding of the impact of xenoestrogens on health and disease. Full article
Open AccessArticle Cytotoxicity and Transcriptional Activation of Stress Genes in Human Liver Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells Exposed to Iprodione
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2004, 1(1), 12-20; doi:10.3390/ijerph2004010012
Received: 11 September 2003 / Accepted: 13 November 2003 / Published: 29 February 2004
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (209 KB)
Abstract
Iprodione (C13H13Cl2N3O3) is a broad spectrum dicarboximide fungicide used on a wide variety of crop diseases. It is used on vegetables, ornamentals, pome and stone fruit, root crops, cotton and sunflowers, to [...] Read more.
Iprodione (C13H13Cl2N3O3) is a broad spectrum dicarboximide fungicide used on a wide variety of crop diseases. It is used on vegetables, ornamentals, pome and stone fruit, root crops, cotton and sunflowers, to control a variety of fungal pests. Iprodione inhibits the germination of spores and the growth of the fungal mycelium. Experimental studies with mice have indicated that exposure to iprodione at dose levels 5 to 15 folds greater than the LOAEL for liver injury, induces microsomal enzyme activities, hepatocyte proliferation, hepatomegaly, centrilobular hypertrophy, diffuse hypertrophy, and an increase in lauric acid hydroxylation. Currently, there is no toxicological data available on human health effects associated with exposure to iprodione. In this research, we performed the MTT Assay for cell viability to assess the cytotoxicity of iprodione, and the CAT-Tox (L) assay to measure the induction of stress genes in thirteen recombinant cell lines generated from human liver carcinoma cells (HepG2). The cytotoxicity data indicated a strong concentration - response relationship with regard to iprodione toxicity. The percentages of cell viability were 100 ± 0%, 128.0 ± 41.4%, 97.5 ± 37.7%, 70.1 ± 35.4%, 33.5 ± 16.1%, and 5.1 ± 3.7% in 0, 31.3, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 μg/mL, respectively. The LC50 was 208.3±83.3 μg/mL. Data obtained from the CAT-Tox (L) assay showed that iprodione is able to induce a significant number of stress genes in HepG2 cells. At 250 ug/mL exposure, the induction levels were 1.2 ± 0.4, 50.1 ± 17.8, 3.9 ± 1.2, 16.8 ± 7.2, 10.7 ± 0.7, 1.8 ± 0, 26.3 ± 10.0, 7.2 ± 2.4, 1.8 ± 0.0, 6.8 ± 1.3, 6.7 ± 0.5, and 4.3 ± 1.8 for CYP1A1, GSTYa, XRE, HMTIIA, c-fos, NF-kBRE, HSP70, CRE, RARE, GADD153, GADD45, and GRP78, respectively. These results indicate that the metabolism of iprodione involves Phase II biotransformation in the liver (XRE, GSTYa), and that this chemical has the potential to cause cell proliferation and/or inflammatory reactions (c-fos, NF-kB), proteotoxic effects (HSP70, GRP78), metabolic disruption (CRE), and DNA damage (GADD45, GADD153). Full article
Open AccessArticle Liver and Renal Function Tests in Artisans Occupationally Exposed to Lead in Mechanic Village in Nnewi, Nigeria
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2004, 1(1), 21-25; doi:10.3390/ijerph2004010021
Received: 10 September 2003 / Accepted: 25 January 2004 / Published: 29 February 2004
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (147 KB)
Abstract
Additives in petroleum solvents have been reported to have adverse health implications. An evaluation study on some toxicological effects of occupational exposure to petroleum products (especially petrol which contains tetraethyl lead) amongst twenty five occupationally exposed artisans and twenty five graduate students of College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Nigeria as controls, was carried out using the following biochemical markers: electrolytes, urea, uric acid, inorganic phosphorus, creatinine, zinc and blood lead, as well as the activities of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, and alkaline phosphatase. The results showed that occupational exposure of human subjects to lead in petrol increases the concentrations of uric acid (357 ± 123μ mol/L) and phosphate (1.5 ± 0.5m mol/L) in exposed subjects compared with unexposed subjects (uric acid 228 ± 105μ mol/L, phosphate 1.2 ± 0.41m mol/L; p < 0.01 in both cases). Significantly lower activities were observed for alkaline phosphatase (66 ± 18.9 iu/L). The activities of alanine aminotransferase (11.4 ± 4.0 iu/L) and aspartate aminotransferase (15.8 ± 4.4 iu/L) in occupationally exposed artisans were higher compared with unexposed subjects (alkaline phosphatase = 78 ± 22.4 iu/L alanine aminotranferase = 6.8 ± 2.7 iu/L, aspartate aminotranferase = 9.6 ± 3.5i u/L; p < 0.01 in all cases). Occupational exposure of human subjects to lead significantly increased blood lead (59.6 ± 15.9 μg/dL) and decreased plasma zinc (71.3 ± 14.4 μg/L) in exposed compared with unexposed subjects (blood lead = 35 ± 7 μg/dL, zinc = 108.4 ± 16.9 μg/dL; p < 0.01). The results indicate that occupational exposure to lead in petrol may compromise liver and renal function. Full article
Open AccessArticle Changes in Soil Chemical Properties and Microbial Activities in Response to the Fungicide Ridomil Gold Plus Copper
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2004, 1(1), 26-34; doi:10.3390/ijerph2004010026
Received: 4 November 2003 / Accepted: 5 January 2004 / Published: 29 February 2004
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (218 KB)
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to investigate changes of soil chemical and biological properties changes resulting from a single application of the fungicide Ridomil Gold plus copper (Ridomil Gold plus)(mefenoxam 6% + copper oxide 60%) at the following rates 0.25, 0.5, [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study was to investigate changes of soil chemical and biological properties changes resulting from a single application of the fungicide Ridomil Gold plus copper (Ridomil Gold plus)(mefenoxam 6% + copper oxide 60%) at the following rates 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 10 g m-2. Selected chemical properties generally differed between fungicide rates over longer incubation periods. Microbial activity indices (available N, ammonification rates and specific enzymatic systems) were more sensitive indicators of change. Values of these indicators generally increased with incubation period and decreased or increased at high rates. Significant changes in P availability occurred after 90 days of incubation at rates ≥ 1 g m-2. Incorporation of the fungicide significantly increased NH4+ levels in soil after 75 days of incubation. These changes stimulated soil microbial activity as evidenced by increased ammonification rates especially at long-term exposure. Of the enzyme activities studied, dehydrogenase and ß-glucosidase activities were the most sensitive to ridomil gold plus. This sensitivity was more pronounced with the dehydrogenase activity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Toxicity of a Mixture of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid and Mono-soduim Methanearsonate to the Red Swamp Crawfish, Procambarus clarkii
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2004, 1(1), 35-38; doi:10.3390/ijerph2004010035
Received: 10 January 2004 / Accepted: 20 January 2004 / Published: 29 February 2004
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (138 KB)
Abstract
2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and monosodium methanearsonate are often sold in commercial herbicide mixtures. Toxicity studies have been performed for each herbicide individually, but there is a dearth of information concerning the toxicity of these herbicides in a mixture. The following study examined the [...] Read more.
2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and monosodium methanearsonate are often sold in commercial herbicide mixtures. Toxicity studies have been performed for each herbicide individually, but there is a dearth of information concerning the toxicity of these herbicides in a mixture. The following study examined the toxicity of a mixture of these two herbicides in the red swamp crawfish, Procambarus clarkii. 96-hour acute toxicity assays were performed to determine whether surfactant significantly altered the toxicity of these herbicides individually or in combination. Marking’s additive index was calculated to identify the interactions of the herbicide mixture. Surfactant was observed to significantly increase the toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and the toxicity of the herbicide mixture. The herbicide mixture alone displayed half the toxicity of the individual herbicides, but the mixture with surfactant was twice as toxic as the individual herbicides. The synergistic action of surfactant may be attributed to increased pesticide absorption across biological membranes. 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and surfactant may also compromise gill function, increasing the sensitivity of the crawfish to herbicide toxicity. The antagonistic effects of the herbicide mixture in the absence of surfactant may be caused by competition of both herbicides for the same sites of activity. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms Associated with Autoimmune Diseases
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2004, 1(1), 39-73; doi:10.3390/ijerph2004010039
Received: 30 October 2003 / Accepted: 15 January 2004 / Published: 29 February 2004
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (700 KB)
Abstract
Evidence points to increases in the incidence and prevalence of several autoimmune diseases in the United States. As a result, the cost to public health from clinical management of autoimmune conditions is on the rise. The initiation and progression of autoimmune disturbances [...] Read more.
Evidence points to increases in the incidence and prevalence of several autoimmune diseases in the United States. As a result, the cost to public health from clinical management of autoimmune conditions is on the rise. The initiation and progression of autoimmune disturbances involves both genetic and environmental factors. Deficiencies in important proteins that normally participate in maintaining checks and balances within the internal milieu may render an individual prone to developing autoantibodies. Structural abnormalities or decline in normal levels of the pentraxins (serum amylase-P protein, the acute phase proteins, complement, and C-reactive proteins) have been shown to induce autoimmunity. Irregular transmission of information arising from multiple signal transduction pathways typically associated with the serine/threonine cascade routes of mitogen activating phosphorylation kinases, has also been found to induce autoimmunity. The kind of ligand/receptor interactions drives physical recruitment of different signals within the lymphocyte; these links define the quality and quantity of subsequent immune responses. CD95 or the Fas/Apo-1 and its ligand CD95L participate in regulating lymphocyte populations and therefore influence various aspects of immune responses. Mutational abnormalities resulting from synthesis of proteins by the CD95 and/or its ligand CD95L may result in alterations in the apoptotic pathways. Apoptosis may be completely inhibited, activated or partially stimulated. Modulation of apoptosis may lead to accumulation of self-antigens. Subsequently the immune system may be stimulated to react against self-molecules through lymphatic hyperplasia. This process may end up in proliferative disorders and enhanced susceptibility to autoimmune syndromes. This paper deals with mechanisms of autoimmunopathogenesis at the cellular and molecular levels. Emphasis is laid on the role of T and B cell receptor/ligand interactions, functions and malfunctions due to structural and quantitative alterations in T- B- cell cluster of antigen determinants. Genetically susceptible patients who develop spontaneous autoimmune diseases are examined and the etiological factors implicated in the initiation and subsequent dissemination of autoimmune diseases is discussed. Full article

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