Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(3), 319-333; doi:10.3390/md9030319
Review

Marine Carotenoids: Biological Functions and Commercial Applications

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Received: 31 January 2011; in revised form: 15 February 2011 / Accepted: 17 February 2011 / Published: 3 March 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life. Light capture, photosynthesis photoprotection, excess light dissipation and quenching of singlet oxygen are among key biological functions of carotenoids relevant for life on earth. Biological properties of carotenoids allow for a wide range of commercial applications. Indeed, recent interest in the carotenoids has been mainly for their nutraceutical properties. A large number of scientific studies have confirmed the benefits of carotenoids to health and their use for this purpose is growing rapidly. In addition, carotenoids have traditionally been used in food and animal feed for their color properties. Carotenoids are also known to improve consumer perception of quality; an example is the addition of carotenoids to fish feed to impart color to farmed salmon.
Keywords: carotenoids; microalgae; applications; nutraceuticals; health benefits
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vílchez, C.; Forján, E.; Cuaresma, M.; Bédmar, F.; Garbayo, I.; Vega, J.M. Marine Carotenoids: Biological Functions and Commercial Applications. Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 319-333.

AMA Style

Vílchez C, Forján E, Cuaresma M, Bédmar F, Garbayo I, Vega JM. Marine Carotenoids: Biological Functions and Commercial Applications. Marine Drugs. 2011; 9(3):319-333.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vílchez, Carlos; Forján, Eduardo; Cuaresma, María; Bédmar, Francisco; Garbayo, Inés; Vega, José M. 2011. "Marine Carotenoids: Biological Functions and Commercial Applications." Mar. Drugs 9, no. 3: 319-333.

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